5Animals get energy from eating plants or other animals Animals get energy from eating plants or other animals. They are called consumers.Primary consumers (herbivores) eat plants.Secondary consumers (carnivores) eat other animals.
7Energy is transferred from plants to animals through Food Chains. Sunlightenergy
8Small but MightyPhytoplankton are floating microscopic plants. They are very important estuary producers.PhytoplanktonZooplanktonPhytoplankton are eaten by floating animals, zooplankton - and by bigger animals like snails, clams, and barnacles.
9Plants and animals:Burn energy when they move and grow.Store energy in their bodies.Release unused energy as waste and heat.Energy used for swimmingfood energy inFood energy stored in fish - ready to be eatenUndigested food energy out
10In an estuary, not every animal or plant gets eaten In an estuary, not every animal or plant gets eaten. Plants like eelgrass die back each year, just like the grass in a field.This stored-up energy is still important.
11When a plant or animal dies, it rots When a plant or animal dies, it rots. Bacteria breaks down the stored energy into food that can be used by other animals.Detritus: dead and rotting bits of plants and animalsDetritivore: an animal that eats detritus.
12Estuary food chains often overlap, making food webs.
13Because many animals eat more than one thing, tracing Because many animals eat more than one thing, tracing energy through the estuary can get messy.Relative Importance Of Food Web LinkagesPrimary (75-100% of Total)Secondary (50-74% of Total)Tertiary (25-49% of Total)Incidental (0-24% of Total)Sanderlings,Long & Short-billedDowitchers, Greater YellowlegsWhimbrel, Mallard, Northern Shoveler, Pintail, Western SandpiperGreat BlueHeronSnow Goose, Canada Goose, black Brant, American cootPenpointGunnelPaddedSculpinChumSalmon (juv.)CrescentGunnelBayPipefishPacificStaghornSculpinStarryFlounder (juv.)SnakePricklebackSharpnoseSculpinSaddlebackGunnelTidepoolSculpinShinerPerchGastropodMolluscsBuffaloSculpinEnglishSole (juv.)NemerteansSmall Fish (inc.herring, perch)BivalveMolluscsCumaceansTubenosePoacherPolychaeteAnnelidsGammaridAmphipodsFlabelliferanIsopodsTunicatesGastropodMolluscsSilverspottedSculpinHarpacticoidCopepodsMysidsTanaidsHippolytid,Crangonid,And PenaeidShrimpSaltmarshPlants & EelgrassBrachyuranCrabsBenthicMeiofaunaValviferanIsopodsMacrophyticAlgaePhytoplanktonMicrophyticAlgaeAnthozoansDetritusFrom Simenstad et al. 1979