2EcologyAll organism, from the smallest bacteria to a blue whale, interact with their environmentEcology: the study of the interactions among organisms and their environmentAbiotic factors: nonliving parts of the environmentBiotic factors: living or once-living organisms in the environment
3Abiotic FactorsExamples of abiotic factors: water, sunlight, temperature, air, and soilThese factors are important in determining which organisms are able to live in a particular environment
4Ecologist study biotic and abiotic factors in an environment and the relationship among them. Many times, ecologists must travel to specific environments to examine the organisms that live there.
5Water All living things need water to survive The bodies of most organisms are 50 – 95% waterMore than 95% of Earth’s surface water is found in the oceansSaltwater environment in the oceans is home to a vast number of speciesFreshwater environments support thousands of types of organisms
6Saltwater accounts for 97% of the water on Earth Saltwater accounts for 97% of the water on Earth. It is found in the seas and oceans.Only 3% of Earth’s water in freshwater
7Light Light and temperature affect the environment The availability of sunlight is a major factor in determining where green plants liveAlgae live near the water’s surface where sunlight can penetrateLittle sunlight reaches the forest floor, so very few plants grow close to the forest floor
8Flowers that grow on the forest floor grow during the spring when they receive the most sunlight.
9TemperatureTemperature can determine which plants and animals can live in a regionSome areas of the world have a fairly consistent temp. year round, but others varyWater environments throughout the world also have a widely varied temp.Plant and animal species found in the freezing cold Arctic, in the extremely hot water, and every temp. in betwee,
10AirAlthough you can’t see the air that surrounds you, it has an impact on the lives of most speciesComposed of a mixture of gasesPolluted air can cause the species in an area to change, move, or die offAll species are affected by the weather in the area that they live
11Air pollution can come from many different sources Air pollution can come from many different sources. Air quality in an area affects the health and survival of the species that live there.
12Soil From one environment to another, soil can vary greatly Soil type is determined by the amounts of sand, silt, and clay it containsDifferent plants need different kinds of soilSoil affects every organism in an environment
13Soil provides a home for many species of animal.
14Biotic FactorsAbiotic factors do not provide everything an organism needs for survivalOrganisms depend on other organisms for food, shelter, protection, and reproductionHow organisms interact with one another and with abiotic factors can be described in an organized way
15Levels of Organization The living world is highly organizedAtoms – molecules – cells – tissues – organs – organ systems – organismsBiotic and abiotic factors also can be arranged into levels of biological organizationOrganism – population – community – ecosystem – biome – biosphere
16Organism: An organism is one individual from a population.
17PopulationsAll the members of one species that live together make up a populationEX. All of the catfish living in a lake at the same time make up a populationMembers of a population compete for food, water, mates, and spaceThe resources of the environment and the ways the organisms use these resources determine how large a population can become
18Population: All of the individuals of one species that live in the same area at the same time make up a population
19Communities Most populations of organisms do not live alone They live and interact with populations of other types of organismsGroups of populations that interact with each other in a given area form a communityPopulations of organisms in a community depend on each other for food, shelter, and other needs
20Community: The populations of different species that interact in some way are called a community.
21EcosystemEcosystem is made up of a biotic community and the abiotic factors that affect itEx. Coral reefs, forests, and ponds
22Ecosystem: All of the communities in an area and the abiotic factors that affect them make up an ecosystem.
23Biomes Scientist divide Earth into different regions called biomes A biome is a large region with plant and animal groups that are well adapted to the soil and climate of the regionMany different ecosystems are found in a biome
24Biome: a biome is a large region with plants and animals well adapted to the soil and climate of the region.
25This map shows some of the major biomes of the world This map shows some of the major biomes of the world. What biome do you live in?
26Biosphere The part of Earth that supports life is the biosphere Includes the top part of Earth’s crust, all the waters that cover Earth’s surface, the surrounding atmosphere, and all biomesThe biosphere is only a small part of Earth
27Biosphere: The level of biological organization that is made up of all the ecosystems on Earth is the biosphere.
28Quiz What is an ecosystem? How are the terms ecology and environment related?Explain how biotic factors change in an ecosystem that has flooded.
29AnswersAll of the communities in an area and the abiotic factors that affect themEcology is the study of the interactions among organisms and their environmentOrganisms that do no live in water would die. Other water organisms might move into the ecosystem