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Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Overview: The Scope of Ecology Ecology is the scientific study of the.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Overview: The Scope of Ecology Ecology is the scientific study of the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Overview: The Scope of Ecology Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment These interactions determine distribution of organisms and their abundance Ecology reveals the richness of the biosphere

2 Fig Organismal ecology Population ecology Community ecology Ecosystem ecology Landscape ecology Global ecology

3 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Concept 52.2: Interactions between organisms and the environment limit the distribution of species Ecologists have long recognized global and regional patterns of distribution of organisms Ecologists recognize two kinds of factors that determine distribution: biotic, or living factors, and abiotic, or nonliving factors

4 Fig Kangaroos/km 2 0– –1 1–5 5–10 10–20 > 20 Limits of distribution

5 Fig Current

6 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Biotic Factors Biotic factors that affect the distribution of organisms may include: – Interactions with other species – Predation – Competition

7 Fig RESULTS Sea urchin Limpet Seaweed cover (%) Both limpets and urchins removed Only urchins removed Only limpets removed Control (both urchins and limpets present) August 1982 August 1983 February 1983 February 1984

8 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Abiotic Factors Abiotic factors affecting distribution of organisms include: – Temperature – Water – Sunlight – Wind – Rocks and soil Most abiotic factors vary in space and time

9 Fig. 52-9

10 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Climate Four major abiotic components of climate are temperature, water, sunlight, and wind The long-term prevailing weather conditions in an area constitute its climate Macroclimate consists of patterns on the global, regional, and local level Microclimate consists of very fine patterns, such as those encountered by the community of organisms underneath a fallen log

11 Fig a Latitudinal Variation in Sunlight Intensity Low angle of incoming sunlight Sun directly overhead at equinoxes Low angle of incoming sunlight Atmosphere 90ºS (South Pole) 60ºS 30ºS 23.5ºS (Tropic of Capricorn) 0º (equator) 30ºN 23.5ºN (Tropic of Cancer) 60ºN 90ºN (North Pole) Seasonal Variation in Sunlight Intensity 60ºN 30ºN 30ºS 0º (equator) March equinox June solstice Constant tilt of 23.5º September equinox December solstice

12 Fig d Global Air Circulation and Precipitation Patterns 60ºN 30ºN 0º (equator) 30ºS 60ºS Global Wind Patterns Descending dry air absorbs moisture Ascending moist air releases moisture Descending dry air absorbs moisture Arid zone Tropics Arid zone 0º 66.5ºN (Arctic Circle) 60ºN 30ºN 0º (equator) 30ºS 60ºS 66.5ºS (Antarctic Circle) Westerlies Northeast trades Doldrums Southeast trades Westerlies 23.5º 30º 23.5º 30º

13 Fig Warm air over land rises Air cools at high elevation. Cool air over water moves inland, replacing rising warm air over land. Cooler air sinks over water.

14 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Long-Term Climate Change Global climate change will profoundly affect the biosphere As climate changes, species that have difficulty dispersing may have smaller ranges or could become extinct

15 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Concept 52.3: Aquatic biomes are diverse and dynamic systems that cover most of Earth Biomes are the major ecological associations that occupy broad geographic regions of land or water Varying combinations of biotic and abiotic factors determine the nature of biomes

16 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Aquatic biomes account for the largest part of the biosphere in terms of area They can contain fresh water or salt water (marine) Water covers about 75% of Earth’s surface and has an enormous impact on the biosphere

17 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Stratification of Aquatic Biomes Many aquatic biomes are stratified into zones or layers defined by light penetration, temperature, and depth

18 Fig Littoral zone Limnetic zone Photic zone Pelagic zone Benthic zone Aphotic zone (a) Zonation in a lake (b) Marine zonation 2,000–6,000 m Abyssal zone Benthic zone Aphotic zone Pelagic zone Continental shelf 200 m Photic zone 0 Oceanic zone Neritic zone Intertidal zone

19 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings The upper photic zone has sufficient light for photosynthesis while the lower aphotic zone receives little light The organic and inorganic sediment at the bottom of all aquatic zones is called the benthic zone The communities of organisms in the benthic zone are collectively called the benthos Detritus, dead organic matter, falls from the productive surface water and is an important source of food

20 Fig WinterSpring SummerAutumn Thermocline 4º 2º In oceans and most lakes, a temperature boundary called the thermocline separates the warm upper layer from the cold deeper water

21 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Lakes Oligotrophic lakes are nutrient-poor and generally oxygen-rich Eutrophic lakes are nutrient-rich and often depleted of oxygen if ice covered in winter Rooted and floating aquatic plants live in the shallow and well-lighted littoral zone

22 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Water is too deep in the limnetic zone to support rooted aquatic plants; small drifting animals called zooplankton graze on the phytoplankton

23 Fig a An oligotrophic lake in Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming

24 Fig b A eutrophic lake in the Okavango Delta, Botswana

25 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Wetlands are among the most productive biomes on earth and are home to diverse invertebrates and birds Video: Swans Taking Flight Video: Swans Taking Flight

26 Fig c Okefenokee National Wetland Reserve in Georgia

27 Rivers and Streams

28 Fig f An estuary in a low coastal plain of Georgia

29 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Intertidal Zones An intertidal zone is periodically submerged and exposed by the tides Intertidal organisms are challenged by variations in temperature and salinity and by the mechanical forces of wave action Marine biomes

30 Fig g Rocky intertidal zone on the Oregon coast

31 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Oceanic Pelagic Zone The oceanic pelagic biome is a vast realm of open blue water, constantly mixed by wind- driven oceanic currents Video: Shark Eating a Seal Video: Shark Eating a Seal

32 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Coral Reefs Coral reefs are formed from the calcium carbonate skeletons of corals (phylum Cnidaria) Corals require a solid substrate for attachment

33 Fig i A coral reef in the Red Sea

34 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Marine Benthic Zone The marine benthic zone consists of the seafloor below the surface waters of the coastal, or neritic, zone and the offshore pelagic zone

35 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Concept 52.4: The structure and distribution of terrestrial biomes are controlled by climate and disturbance Climate is very important in determining why terrestrial biomes are found in certain areas Biome patterns can be modified by disturbance such as a storm, fire, or human activity

36 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Terrestrial Biomes Terrestrial biomes can be characterized by distribution, precipitation, temperature, plants, and animals

37 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Tropical Forest In tropical rain forests, rainfall is varied. Tropical forests are vertically layered and competition for light is intense Greatest biodiversity of all terrestrial biomes

38 Fig a A tropical rain forest in Borneo

39 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Desert Precipitation is low, deserts may be hot or cold Plants and animals are adapted to conserve water.

40 Fig b A desert in the southwestern United States

41 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Savanna Savanna precipitation and temperature are seasonal Grasses and forbs make up most of the ground cover

42 Fig c A savanna in Kenya

43 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Chaparral Chaparral climate is highly seasonal, coastal areas with cool and rainy winters and hot dry summers The chaparral is dominated by shrubs, small trees

44 Fig d An area of chaparral in California

45 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Temperate Grassland Temperate grasslands are found on many continents and marked by seasonal droughts Winters are cold and dry, while summers are wet and hot The dominant plants are grasses. Soil is rich in nutrients.

46 Fig e Sheyenne National Grassland in North Dakota

47 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Northern Coniferous Forest The northern coniferous forest, or taiga, is the largest terrestrial biome on Earth Winters are cold and long while summers may be hot

48 Fig f Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado

49 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Temperate Broadleaf Forest Winters are cool, while summers are hot and humid; significant precipitation falls year round as rain and snow A mature forest has vertical layers dominated by deciduous trees

50 Fig g Great Smoky Mountains National Park in North Carolina

51 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Tundra Tundra winters are long and cold while summers are relatively cool; precipitation varies Permafrost, a permanently frozen layer of soil, prevents water infiltration

52 Fig h Denali National Park, Alaska, in autumn


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