Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Working Cell: Energy from Sunlight Chapter 8 Notes.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Working Cell: Energy from Sunlight Chapter 8 Notes."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Working Cell: Energy from Sunlight Chapter 8 Notes

2 Ch. 8 The Working Cell: Energy from Light 8.1 Photosynthesis uses light energy to make food. 8.2 The light reactions convert light energy to chemical energy. 8.3 The Calvin cycle makes sugar from carbon dioxide. 8.4 Photosynthesis has a global impact.

3 8.1 Photosynthesis uses light energy to make food. Objectives Describe the structure of a chloroplast. Identify the overall reactants and products of photosynthesis.

4 Key Terms Chloroplast Chlorophyll Stroma Thylakoid Light reactions Calvin cycle 8.1 Photosynthesis uses light energy to make food.

5 Photosynthesis is the process by which plants & other producers convert energy of sunlight to energy stored in organic molecules. Photosynthesis Chloroplast – organelle where photosynthesis takes place Chlorophyll – chemical that gives a green color to chloroplasts. 8.1 Photosynthesis uses light energy to make food.

6 Chloroplasts structure Chloroplasts structure is key to its function Has an inner & outer membrane Inner membrane encloses a thick fluid called the stroma Suspended in the stroma are thylakoids – disk-shaped sacs 8.1 Photosynthesis uses light energy to make food.

7 Cellular respiration – fall of electrons form glucose to oxygen gives off energy, which is then used to make ATP. Photosynthesis is the opposite – electrons from water are boosted uphill by the energy from sunlight. 8.1 Photosynthesis uses light energy to make food.

8 Excited electrons along with carbon dioxide & water are used by chloroplasts to produce glucose & oxygen. 8.1 Photosynthesis uses light energy to make food.

9 Photosynthesis occurs in 2 main stages. Photosynthesis occurs in 2 main stages Light reactions – convert sunlight to chemical energy Stored in NADPH & ATP Calvin cycle – makes sugar from carbon dioxide and H + ions from the splitting of water. 8.1 Photosynthesis uses light energy to make food.

10 8.1 Concept check (QUIZ) Draw & label a simple diagram of a chloroplast that includes the following structures: outer & inner membranes, stroma, thylakoids. What are the reactants of photosynthesis, what are the products? Name the 2 main stages of photosynthesis. How are they related?

11 8.2 The light reactions convert light energy to chemical energy Objectives Explain how light interacts with pigments. Describe how photosystems help harvest light energy. Identify the chemical products of the light reactions.

12 Key Terms Wavelength Electromagnetic spectrum Pigment Paper chromatography photosystem 8.2 The light reactions convert light energy to chemical energy

13 Light energy is a form of electromagnetic energy Light energy Travels in waves (similar to ocean waves) Measured by wavelength – distance between 2 adjacent waves. 8.2 The light reactions convert light energy to chemical energy

14 Different forms of electromagnetic energy have characteristic wavelengths Electromagnetic spectrum Electromagnetic spectrum – the range of types of electromagnetic energy 8.2 The light reactions convert light energy to chemical energy

15 Pigments Pigments – chemical compounds that give a substance its color. Cause different wavelengths to be… Absorbed Transmitted Reflected 8.2 The light reactions convert light energy to chemical energy

16 Paper chromatography – lab technique used to observe different pigments in substances. 8.2 The light reactions convert light energy to chemical energy

17 Harvesting light energy Photosystems – clusters of pigment molecules Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll b Carotenoids 8.2 The light reactions convert light energy to chemical energy

18 Harvesting light energy 1)Pigments absorb light energy 2)transfer energy to electrons 3)transfer energy to electronacceptor. 4)converts to ATP or NADPH. 8.2 The light reactions convert light energy to chemical energy

19 Chemical products of the light reactions Oxygen, released as a waste product of the 1 st photosystem. ATP – produced by the release of energy by the electron transport chain between photosystems. NADPH – produced by the second photosystem 8.2 The light reactions convert light energy to chemical energy

20 8.2 Concept check Explain why a leaf appears green. Describe what happens when a molecule of chlorophyll a absorbs light. Besides oxygen, what 2 molecules are produced by the light reactions? Where in the chloroplast do the light reactions take place?

21 8.3 The Calvin cycle makes sugar from carbon dioxide Objectives Explain how the Calvin cycle makes sugar. Summarize the overall process of photosynthesis.

22 The Calvin cycle Called a cycle because the starting material RuBP is regenerated each time the process occurs RuBP is a 5 carbon sugar 8.3 The Calvin cycle makes sugar from carbon dioxide

23 Into the Calvin cycle Carbon dioxide ATP NADPH 8.3 The Calvin cycle makes sugar from carbon dioxide From air From light reactions

24 Outputs of Calvin cycle G3P (an energy rich sugar) –Not yet glucose –Used by plant to make glucose ADP + P NADP The Calvin cycle makes sugar from carbon dioxide

25 Summary of photosynthesis Light reactions Convert light energy to chemical energy Occurs in thylakoids Uses water (reactant) & releases oxygen (product) 8.3 The Calvin cycle makes sugar from carbon dioxide

26 Calvin cycle Occurs in stroma Uses ATP & NADPH Converts carbon dioxide (reactant) to sugar (product) 8.3 The Calvin cycle makes sugar from carbon dioxide

27 8.3 Concept check What are the inputs & outputs of the Calvin cycle? Which stage of photosynthesis uses each reactant from the overall photosynthesis equation? Which stage generates each product from the overall photosynthesis equation?

28 Why is the Calvin cycle called a cycle? What molecule is the direct product of photosynthesis? How is that molecule then used by the plant cell? 8.3 Concept check

29 8.4 Photosynthesis has a global impact. Objectives Describe the path of carbon in the carbon cycle. Explain how photosynthesis is related to climate.

30 Key Terms Carbon cycle Greenhouse effect 8.4 Photosynthesis has a global impact.

31 Processes that occur on a global scale depend on chloroplasts & mitochondrion Carbon cycle – process by which carbon moves from inorganic to organic & back to inorganic. 8.4 Photosynthesis has a global impact.

32 Path of carbon in the carbon cycle 1) Producers convert inorganic carbon to organic carbon through photosynthesis. 2) Consumers eat the producers, may be eaten by other consumers. 3) Cellular respiration by both producers & consumers eventually carbon dioxide to the atmosphere 8.4 Photosynthesis has a global impact.

33 Plants & other photosynthetic organisms make about 160 billion metric tons of organic material. 80 trillion copies of book 25 stacks reaching to the sun. 8.4 Photosynthesis has a global impact.

34 Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere traps in heat – greenhouse effectgreenhouse effect Keeps world climate warm enough for living things. Average 10°C warmer than it would be. Amount of carbon dioxide in atmosphere is rising. 8.4 Photosynthesis has a global impact.

35 Photosynthesis

36 Stages of Photosynthesis

37 Electromagnetic spectrum

38 Pigments & Color

39 Harvesting Light Energy

40 Chemical products of light reactions

41 Calvin cycle

42 Photosynthesis

43 Greenhouse effect

44 Light Waves


Download ppt "The Working Cell: Energy from Sunlight Chapter 8 Notes."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google