# Chapter 4 Worksheets Place these notes in your Notebook.

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Chapter 4 Worksheets Place these notes in your Notebook.

After You Read Explain the nebular hypothesis of the solar system. A huge cloud of gas and dust spun more and more quickly as its size shrank. Heavier materials gravitated toward the center. Heat fused them together. They turned into liquids and then solids such as our planet Earth.

Earth’s Layers SolidLiquidDepthTemperature Outer core +22 Inner core+11 Crust+44 Mantle+ / - 33 4.2

After You Read Add information to the concept map to describe the effects of Earth’s rotation. Effects of Earth’s RotationDay and night Coriolis effect Sunrise and Sunset 4.2

After You Read Describe how Earth’s rotation affects a pendulum. As the Earth moves underneath the pendulum, the pendulum’s direction of swing changes in a clockwise direction at a constant rate. 4.2

Define Earth’s axis of rotation and its rate of rotation. Explain the impact of Earth’s shape on its rotation of orientation. The axis of rotation is the imaginary line around which Earth rotates. The rate of rotation is the speed at which Earth rotates. Because of Earth’s spherical shape, it turns farther in an hour at the equator than at the Poles. 4.2

While You Read Northern Hemisphere Southern Hemisphere Vernal equinoxEqual sunlight & darkness Summer SolsticeEqual sunlight & darkness Autumnal equinoxMost sunlight; Least darkness Least sunlight; Most darkness Winter solsticeLeast sunlight; Most darkness Most sunlight; Least darkness 4.3

After You Read Explain how Earth’s revolution affects the amount of sunlight and darkness at the North and South Poles. On the summer solstice, the North Pole has continuous light, while the South Pole has continuous darkness. On the winter solstice, these positions are reversed. 4.3

After You Read Describe the Earth’s path around the sun and its rate of revolution. Earth revolves counterclockwise around the sun. It travels in an elliptical orbit, taking one calendar year to complete a revolution. 4.3