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Inclusions in gemstones: Gems in Gems Egor Gavrilenko Instituto Gemológico Español.

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Presentation on theme: "Inclusions in gemstones: Gems in Gems Egor Gavrilenko Instituto Gemológico Español."— Presentation transcript:

1 Inclusions in gemstones: Gems in Gems Egor Gavrilenko Instituto Gemológico Español

2 Inclusions in gemstones: Gems in Gems Introduction Types of inclusions Importance of inclusions:  In Geology  In Gemology Methods of inclusion’s studies The artistic side of inclusions:  Photomicrography  Special cuts and jewelry

3 Introduction Inclusions: Particles of other minerals or cavities found inside crystals, trapped during crystal’s growth or formed inside after the host mineral formation. In gemology, are also considered mechanical inclusions (fissures, growth lines, etc.) and color zoning, described together as “internal characteristics” of gems.

4 Introduction Negative impact on quality of gemstones (Clarity) Photos Anthony Cáceres

5 Types of inclusions: By type of trapped material Single phase:  Solid  Liquid  Gaseous Two phases:  Liquid-vapor  Liquid-liquid  Liquid-solid  Solid-gaseous Three phases … Multiphase …. Photo Juan S. Cózar

6 Types of inclusions: By time of their formation For solid inclusions  Protogenetic  Syngenetic  Epigenetic For fluid inclusions  Primary  Secondary  Pseudo-secondary

7 Applications in Geology Sequence of mineral formation in mineral deposits P-T conditions of mineral formation (fluid inclusions study, thermodynamic stability diagrams for syngenetic minerals) Development of genetic models for mineral deposits (mineralization fluids origin, age, relation with magmatic and tectonic events, etc.).

8 Importance for Gemology Aesthetic importance Importance for gem’s identification Special collections

9 Photo Marco Campos Venuti Importance for Gemology Aesthetic importance:  Color of some gems  Special phenomena: Aventurescence Chatoyancy Asterism  Special gemological varieties

10 Importance for Gemology Importance for gem identification:  Type of gem  Natural or synthetic  Treatments  Geographic origin Photo Juan S. Cózar Photo José María Alonso

11 Methods of inclusions studies Microscopic observation + photomicrography Electron microscopy + EDX or WDX (punctual) X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (global) Raman Spectroscopy (punctual or global) FTIR Spectroscopy (punctual or global) Fluid inclusions microthermometry

12 Methods of inclusions studies Microscopic observation + photomicrography Electron microscopy + EDX or WDX (punctual) X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (global) Raman Spectroscopy (punctual or global) FTIR Spectroscopy (punctual or global) Fluid inclusions microthermometry

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14 Emeralds from the Urals H 2 Oliq - 70-80 vol % CO 2 liq ~ 5-7 vol % Vapor - 25-30 vol % T m CO 2 = -56.6-57.2 T m ice= -3.8-6.8 T m clatr= 6.2-9.4 T h (L  V) CO 2 = 16-29 T h (V  L) liq  250-330 T = 350-450 o C, P = 2,5-3 kb, 8 wt % NaCl

15 The artistic side of inclusions Photomicrography Special cut gems to highlight the beauty of inclusions Designer jewelry focused on gems with inclusions

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17 Special cut gems Richard P. Homer, Gems by Design, Inc., Kent, OH, USA 30.95 ct. rutilated Quartz with a single natural needle in the center. AGTA Spectrum Awards Winners 2012 Honorable Mention, Innovative Faceting John Bailey, www.gemstoneartist.com “The Sword In the Stone” - quartz with single brookite inclusion John Bailey, www.gemstoneartist.com Oregon Sunstone using copper schiller to highlight concave faceting John Bailey, www.gemstoneartist.com Red Hematite flake in Quartz. Flake oriented to give color to the gem. John Bailey, www.gemstoneartist.com Quartz with phantom planes oriented to reflect as "angel wings"

18 Gold neclace with rutilated quartz, by Xisco Clapés Triviño Custom made jewelry Pendant with rutilated quartz in white gold, by Laura Márquez White gold pendant with quartz with epidote inclusions and green tourmalines, by Laura Márquez White gold pendant with rutilated quartz and citrines, by Laura Márquez Quartz with tourmaline needles, cut by Munsteiner, white gold pendant by Laura Márquez

19 - Thanks for your attention -


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