Presentation on theme: "Inclusions in gemstones: Gems in Gems"— Presentation transcript:
1Inclusions in gemstones: Gems in Gems Egor GavrilenkoInstituto Gemológico Español
2Inclusions in gemstones: Gems in Gems IntroductionTypes of inclusionsImportance of inclusions:In GeologyIn GemologyMethods of inclusion’s studiesThe artistic side of inclusions:PhotomicrographySpecial cuts and jewelry
3IntroductionInclusions: Particles of other minerals or cavities found inside crystals, trapped during crystal’s growth or formed inside after the host mineral formation.In gemology, are also considered mechanical inclusions (fissures, growth lines, etc.) and color zoning, described together as “internal characteristics” of gems.
4Introduction Negative impact on quality of gemstones (Clarity) Photos Anthony Cáceres
5Types of inclusions: By type of trapped material Single phase:SolidLiquidGaseousTwo phases:Liquid-vaporLiquid-liquidLiquid-solidSolid-gaseousThree phases …Multiphase ….Photo Juan S. Cózar
6Types of inclusions: By time of their formation For solid inclusionsProtogeneticSyngeneticEpigeneticFor fluid inclusionsPrimarySecondaryPseudo-secondary
7Applications in Geology Sequence of mineral formation in mineral depositsP-T conditions of mineral formation (fluid inclusions study, thermodynamic stability diagrams for syngenetic minerals)Development of genetic models for mineral deposits (mineralization fluids origin, age, relation with magmatic and tectonic events, etc.).
8Importance for Gemology Aesthetic importanceImportance for gem’s identificationSpecial collections
9Importance for Gemology Aesthetic importance:Color of some gemsSpecial phenomena:AventurescenceChatoyancyAsterismSpecial gemological varietiesPhoto Marco Campos VenutiPhoto Marco Campos Venuti
10Importance for Gemology Importance for gem identification:Type of gemNatural or syntheticTreatmentsGeographic originPhoto José María AlonsoPhoto Juan S. CózarPhoto José María Alonso
11Methods of inclusions studies Microscopic observation + photomicrographyElectron microscopy + EDX or WDX (punctual)X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (global)Raman Spectroscopy (punctual or global)FTIR Spectroscopy (punctual or global)Fluid inclusions microthermometry
12Methods of inclusions studies Microscopic observation + photomicrographyElectron microscopy + EDX or WDX (punctual)X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (global)Raman Spectroscopy (punctual or global)FTIR Spectroscopy (punctual or global)Fluid inclusions microthermometry
17Special cut gems John Bailey, www.gemstoneartist.com Quartz with phantom planes oriented to reflect as "angel wings"John Bailey,Oregon Sunstone using copper schiller to highlight concave facetingJohn Bailey,“The Sword In the Stone” - quartz with single brookite inclusionJohn Bailey,Red Hematite flake in Quartz. Flake oriented to give color to the gem.Richard P. Homer, Gems by Design, Inc., Kent, OH, USA30.95 ct. rutilated Quartz with a single natural needle in the center.AGTA Spectrum Awards Winners 2012Honorable Mention, Innovative Faceting
18Custom made jewelryWhite gold pendant with quartz with epidote inclusions and green tourmalines, by Laura MárquezWhite gold pendant with rutilated quartz and citrines, by Laura MárquezPendant with rutilated quartz in white gold, by Laura MárquezQuartz with tourmaline needles, cut by Munsteiner, white gold pendant by Laura MárquezGold neclace with rutilated quartz, by Xisco Clapés Triviño