2CONTENTS INTERNAL DYNAMICS OF THE EARTH Tectonic plates Internal heat PhenomenaEvidenceThe interior of the EarthWhy the interior is so hotCharacteristicsVolcanic eruptionsVolcanic materialTypes of eruptionsReducing the damagesReducing the damageWarning systemsEarthquakesEffectsSeismic wavesMountain buildingRelief featuresDistribution of seismic and volcanic activityInteraction of processesRocksIgneous rocksMetamorphic rocksThe rock cycle
3RESOURCES Why the interior of the Earth is so hot Characteristics of the interior of the EarthTectonic platesPhenomena produced by internalenergyEvidence of the heat from the interior of the EarthVolcanic eruptionsEruptions and volcanic materialTypes of eruptionsEarthquakesEffects of earthquakesSeismic wavesReducing the damageWarning systemsMountain building and relief featuresDistribution of seismic and volcanicactivityLinksThe interior of the EarthInteraction of internal and external processesIgneous rocksMetamorphic rocksThe rock cycle
4Why the interior of the Earth is so hot Earth today4,000 million years ago4,600 million years agometal materialscrustmantlenucleussolid crustoceanliquid outer coresolid inner core(6,000 ºC)solid mantlemeteoriteGiant meteorites continually collided withthe Earth.As the Earth heated up, it expanded in size. Metal materials sunk to the centre.
5Temperature and pressure increase with depth. Characteristics of the interior of the EarthTemperature and pressure increase with depth.At a depth of 50 km:the temperature is 600 ºCthe pressure is 20,000 atmospheresGEOTHERMALGRADIENTRate of increasein temperature:30 ºC per kilometre
7Plates move in three ways. Tectonic platesPlates move in three ways.At divergent boundaries, plates move apart.At convergent boundaries, plates push together.At transform boundaries, plates slide by each other.
8Phenomena produced by internal energy VolcaniceruptionsMolten rock and gases are ejected through the Earth’s crust.Continental driftA slow horizontal movement of the continents.EarthquakesA violent trembling of the Earth’s crust which lasts a short time and varies in intensity.IsostasySlow vertical movement of the Earth’s crust.
9Evidence of heat from the interior of the Earth Formation of the atmosphereHot rocksFormation of a magnetic fieldHydrothermal phenomena
10hot spots within the mantle Volcanic eruptionshotspothot spots within the mantlecrustmantlecrustmantleouter coreinner core
11Eruptions and volcanic material ventvolcanic conePYROCLASTICMATERIALSGASESLAVAmagma chamberpipe (conduit)CLICK TOSEE MORE
12X Eruptions and volcanic material GASES PYROCLASTIC MATERIALS LAVA carbon dioxdewater vapoursulphur gasescarbon monoxideventvolcanic conePYROCLASTICMATERIALSGASESLAVAmagma chamberpipe (conduit)CLICK TOSEE MOREX[close]
13X Eruptions and volcanic material PYROCLASTIC MATERIAL GASES ventvolcanic conePYROCLASTICMATERIALSGASESLAVAmagma chamberpipe (conduit)CLICK TOSEE MOREPYROCLASTIC MATERIALashlapillivolcanic bombsX[close]
14X Eruptions and volcanic material GASES PYROCLASTIC MATERIALS LAVA HOMECONTENTSRESOURCESEruptions and volcanic materialventvolcanic conePYROCLASTICMATERIALSGASESLAVAmagma chamberpipe (conduit)CLICK TOSEE MORELAVAAt more than 1,000 ºC,lava is very liquid and flows easily.At less than 700 ºC,lava is thick and flows slowly.X[close]Bubbles of gas escape gently.Bubbles of gas splatter and cause explosions.
15Types of eruptions HAWAIIAN STROMBOLIAN VULCANIAN CLICK ON THE GREEN BUTTONS TO LEARN MORE.HAWAIIANSTROMBOLIANVULCANIAN
16X Shield volcano Types of eruptions CLICK ON THE GREENBUTTONS TO LEARN MORE.magma temperature: very high (over 1,000 ºC)very liquid lavanot very destructive nor explosiveShield volcanomagma chambercentral ventpipe (conduit)X[close]HAWAIIANSTROMBOLIANVULCANIAN
17X Stratovolcano (composite volcano) Types of eruptions magma temperature: moderate ( ,000 ºC)thick lavaexplosive pyroclastic materialpipe (conduit)Stratovolcano (composite volcano)magma chambervolcanic conecentral ventCLICK ON THE GREENBUTTONS TO LEARN MORE.X[close]STROMBOLIANHAWAIIANSTROMBOLIANVULCANIAN
18X Dome volcano Types of eruptions CLICK ON THE GREENBUTTONS TO LEARN MORE.magma temperature: low (less than 700 ºC)violent, destructive explosionsgenerally gases and ash are expelledmagma chamberDome volcanovolcanic pipe of solidified lavaX[close]VULCANIANHAWAIIANSTROMBOLIANVULCANIAN
19Earthquakes Earthquakes are caused by a sudden release of energy from epicentreseismic waveshypocentre (focus)Earthquakes are caused by a sudden release of energy fromthe Earth’s crust.
20Effects of earthquakes Richter Scale9.6Chile (1960)hypocentre (focus)epicentrelandslidesdamage to buildingstsunamiseismic waves
21Seismic waves Studying seismic waves seismograph seismogram WHAT OTHER INFORMATIONCAN SCIENTISTS LEARNFROM SEISMIC WAVES?seismic waves
22Seismic wavestectonic (lithospheric) platesAnswer:They can learn information about the internal structure of the Earth.crust (granite and basalt)lithospheremantle (perioditite)liquid outer corecore (iron)solid inner coreGO BACK
23Reducing the damage from earthquakes and volcanoes Risk mapPredictionlow highPredictionEmissions of water vapour and other gases are observed.Buildings are designed to withstand seismic movement.Preparedness
24Warning systems satellite Hawaii buoy An early warning buoy system receives information about waves, wind and seismic movement.
25Two plates push together. Mountain building and relief featuresThe crust thickens.outer coremantlerift valleyTwo platesmove apart.rising currentHimalayasTwo plates push together.RELIEF FEATURESOF THE EARTHHOW RELIEFIS FORMED
26Two plates push together. HOMECONTENTSRESOURCESMountain building and relief featuresTwo plates push together.RELIEF FEATURESOF THE EARTHriftThe crust thickens.EurasiaEbro massifTwo platesmove apart.PyreneesmantleIberian plateIberian platerising currentBetic rangesAlboran plateAlboran plateouter core60 million years ago100 million years ago20 million years agoGO BACK
27Mountain building and relief features CLICK ON THE RED DOTS TO LEARN MOREGO BACK
28X Mountain building and relief features Continental shelves: areas near the coastline, under the sea, made up of continental crustXCLICK ON THE RED DOTSTO LEARN MOREGO BACK
29X Mountain building and relief features Oceanic (mid-oceanic) ridges: chains of submarine mountains with intense volcanic activityXCLICK ON THE RED DOTSTO LEARN MOREGO BACK
30X Mountain building and relief features Great plains: large extensions of flat landXCLICK ON THE RED DOTSTO LEARN MOREGO BACK
31X Mountain building and relief features Mountain ranges: chains of mountainsXCLICK ON THE RED DOTSTO LEARN MOREGO BACK
32X Mountain building and relief features Ocean trenches: the deepest areasof the oceanXCLICK ON THE RED DOTSTO LEARN MOREGO BACK
33X Mountain building and relief features Submarine volcanoes can create volcanic archipelagos.XCLICK ON THE RED DOTSTO LEARN MOREGO BACK
34X Mountain building and relief features Abyssal plains: the largest plains on the planetXCLICK ON THE RED DOTSTO LEARN MOREGO BACK
35Distribution of seismic and volcanic activity high seismic activitymoderate seismic activitylow seismic activityvolcanic activity
36Interaction of internal and external processes Agents erode and reduce the weight of the lithosphere.Isostatic movementupliftThe weight of deposited sediment produces subsidence.subsidence (sinking)
37Igneous rocks Common igneous rocks GRANITE PEGAMATITE SYENITE GABBRO VOLCANIC SCORIAPUMICEOBSIDIANBASALTPlutonic or intrusive igneous rocksVolcanic or extrusive igneous rocks
38Metamorphic rocks Common metamorphic rocks Clay minerals or slate Clay minerals, slate, or schistSandstone with quartzLimestoneSLATESCHISTGNEISSQUARTZITEMARBLEincrease in temperature and pressureintense increase in temperature and pressurevery intense increase in temperature and pressureintense increase in temperature and pressureintenseincrease in temperature and pressureOriginal rock and metamorphismMetamorphic rock
39The rock cycle MAGMA SEDIMENTS melting metamorphism SEDIMENTARY ROCK IGNEOUS ROCKMETAMORPHIC ROCKmeltingmetamorphismweathering and erosionweatheringand erosioncompaction and cementationcooling
40Links Rockhounds How do rocks undergo change? How do rocks undergo change?The interior of the EarthRocks and the rock cycleThe Earth: A living planetHow earthquakes happenObserve animations of processes that occur along plate boundaries.Interactives: VolcanoesPlate tectonicsAnimated guide: volcanoesEarthquakesThe rock cycle diagram