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ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Internal dynamics of the Earth CONTENTS RESOURCES.

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Presentation on theme: "ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Internal dynamics of the Earth CONTENTS RESOURCES."— Presentation transcript:

1 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Internal dynamics of the Earth CONTENTS RESOURCES

2 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS CONTENTS INTERNAL DYNAMICS OF THE EARTH The interior of the Earth Why the interior is so hot Characteristics Volcanic eruptions Volcanic material Types of eruptions Earthquakes Effects Seismic waves Reducing the damages Reducing the damage Warning systems Mountain building Relief features Distribution of seismic and volcanic activity Interaction of processes Rocks Igneous rocks Metamorphic rocks The rock cycle Internal heat Phenomena Evidence Tectonic plates

3 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Evidence of the heat from the interior of the Earth RESOURCES Why the interior of the Earth is so hot Characteristics of the interior of the Earth Phenomena produced by internal energy Volcanic eruptions Eruptions and volcanic material Types of eruptions Earthquakes Effects of earthquakes Reducing the damage Warning systems Mountain building and relief features Interaction of internal and external processes Igneous rocks Metamorphic rocks Seismic waves Tectonic plates Distribution of seismic and volcanic activity The rock cycle Links The interior of the Earth

4 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Why the interior of the Earth is so hot Earth today4,000 million years ago4,600 million years ago solid crust ocean liquid outer core solid inner core (6,000 ºC) solid mantle meteorite metal materials crust mantle nucleus Giant meteorites continually collided with the Earth. As the Earth heated up, it expanded in size. Metal materials sunk to the centre.

5 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Characteristics of the interior of the Earth At a depth of 50 km: the temperature is 600 ºC the pressure is 20,000 atmospheres Temperature and pressure increase with depth. Rate of increase in temperature: 30 ºC per kilometre GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT

6 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Tectonic plates

7 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Tectonic plates At divergent boundaries, plates move apart. At convergent boundaries, plates push together. At transform boundaries, plates slide by each other. Plates move in three ways.

8 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Volcanic eruptions Molten rock and gases are ejected through the Earth’s crust. Phenomena produced by internal energy Earthquakes A violent trembling of the Earth’s crust which lasts a short time and varies in intensity. Continental drift Isostasy Slow vertical movement of the Earth’s crust. A slow horizontal movement of the continents.

9 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Formation of a magnetic field Evidence of heat from the interior of the Earth Formation of the atmosphereHot rocks Hydrothermal phenomena

10 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Volcanic eruptions crust mantle outer core inner core crust mantle hotspot hot spots within the mantle

11 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Eruptions and volcanic material vent volcanic cone PYROCLASTIC MATERIALS GASES LAVA magma chamber pipe (conduit) CLICK TO SEE MORE

12 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS vent volcanic cone PYROCLASTIC MATERIALS GASES LAVA magma chamber pipe (conduit) CLICK TO SEE MORE Eruptions and volcanic material GASES carbon dioxde water vapour sulphur gases carbon monoxide [close]

13 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS vent volcanic cone PYROCLASTIC MATERIALS GASES LAVA magma chamber pipe (conduit) CLICK TO SEE MORE Eruptions and volcanic material PYROCLASTIC MATERIAL ash lapilli volcanic bombs [close]

14 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS vent volcanic cone PYROCLASTIC MATERIALS GASES LAVA magma chamber pipe (conduit) CLICK TO SEE MORE Eruptions and volcanic material HOMECONTENTSRESOURCES LAVA At more than 1,000 ºC, lava is very liquid and flows easily. At less than 700 ºC, lava is thick and flows slowly. Bubbles of gas escape gently. Bubbles of gas splatter and cause explosions. [close]

15 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Types of eruptions CLICK ON THE GREEN BUTTONS TO LEARN MORE. HAWAIIAN STROMBOLIANVULCANIAN

16 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS CLICK ON THE GREEN BUTTONS TO LEARN MORE. STROMBOLIANVULCANIAN Types of eruptions HAWAIIAN magma temperature: very high (over 1,000 ºC) very liquid lava not very destructive nor explosive Shield volcano magma chamber central vent pipe (conduit) [close]

17 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS CLICK ON THE GREEN BUTTONS TO LEARN MORE. HAWAIIAN STROMBOLIANVULCANIAN STROMBOLIAN Types of eruptions magma temperature: moderate (700 - 1,000 ºC) thick lava explosive pyroclastic material pipe (conduit) Stratovolcano (composite volcano) magma chamber volcanic cone central vent [close]

18 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS CLICK ON THE GREEN BUTTONS TO LEARN MORE. HAWAIIAN STROMBOLIANVULCANIAN Types of eruptions magma temperature: low (less than 700 ºC) violent, destructive explosions generally gases and ash are expelled magma chamber Dome volcano volcanic pipe of solidified lava [close]

19 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Earthquakes seismic waves epicentre hypocentre (focus) Earthquakes are caused by a sudden release of energy from the Earth’s crust.

20 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Effects of earthquakes Chile (1960) 9.6 Richter Scale hypocentre (focus) epicentre landslides damage to buildings tsunami seismic waves

21 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS seismogram seismograph Seismic waves Studying seismic waves seismic waves WHAT OTHER INFORMATION CAN SCIENTISTS LEARN FROM SEISMIC WAVES?

22 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Seismic waves GO BACK Answer: They can learn information about the internal structure of the Earth. liquid outer core solid inner core lithosphere tectonic (lithospheric) plates crust (granite and basalt) mantle (perioditite) core (iron)

23 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Reducing the damage from earthquakes and volcanoes Risk map Preparedness Prediction Emissions of water vapour and other gases are observed. Buildings are designed to withstand seismic movement. low high Prediction

24 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS satellite An early warning buoy system receives information about waves, wind and seismic movement. Warning systems buoy Hawaii

25 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Mountain building and relief features RELIEF FEATURES OF THE EARTH HOW RELIEF IS FORMED The crust thickens. outer core mantle rift valley Two plates move apart. rising current Himalayas Two plates push together.

26 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Pyrenees Betic ranges 20 million years ago Alboran plate Iberian plate Eurasia 60 million years ago Iberian plate Alboran plate Ebro massif 100 million years ago HOMECONTENTSRESOURCES Mountain building and relief features Two plates push together. RELIEF FEATURES OF THE EARTH GO BACK outer core mantle rift rising current The crust thickens. Two plates move apart.

27 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Mountain building and relief features CLICK ON THE RED DOTS TO LEARN MORE GO BACK

28 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Mountain building and relief features Continental shelves: areas near the coastline, under the sea, made up of continental crust CLICK ON THE RED DOTS TO LEARN MORE GO BACK

29 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Mountain building and relief features Oceanic (mid-oceanic) ridges: chains of submarine mountains with intense volcanic activity CLICK ON THE RED DOTS TO LEARN MORE GO BACK

30 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Mountain building and relief features Great plains: large extensions of flat land CLICK ON THE RED DOTS TO LEARN MORE GO BACK

31 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Mountain building and relief features Mountain ranges: chains of mountains CLICK ON THE RED DOTS TO LEARN MORE GO BACK

32 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Mountain building and relief features Ocean trenches: the deepest areas of the ocean CLICK ON THE RED DOTS TO LEARN MORE GO BACK

33 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Mountain building and relief features Submarine volcanoes can create volcanic archipelagos. CLICK ON THE RED DOTS TO LEARN MORE GO BACK

34 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Mountain building and relief features Abyssal plains: the largest plains on the planet CLICK ON THE RED DOTS TO LEARN MORE GO BACK

35 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Distribution of seismic and volcanic activity high seismic activity moderate seismic activity low seismic activity volcanic activity

36 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Interaction of internal and external processes Isostatic movement subsidence (sinking) uplift The weight of deposited sediment produces subsidence. Agents erode and reduce the weight of the lithosphere.

37 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Igneous rocks Common igneous rocks GRANITEPEGAMATITESYENITEGABBRO VOLCANIC SCORIA PUMICEOBSIDIANBASALT Plutonic or intrusive igneous rocks Volcanic or extrusive igneous rocks

38 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Metamorphic rocks Common metamorphic rocks Clay minerals or slate Clay minerals, slate, or schist Sandstone with quartz Limestone SLATESCHISTGNEISSQUARTZITEMARBLE Original rock and metamorphism Metamorphic rock increase in temperature and pressure intense increase in temperature and pressure very intense increase in temperature and pressure intense increase in temperature and pressure intense increase in temperature and pressure

39 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS The rock cycle SEDIMENTS MAGMA SEDIMENTARY ROCK IGNEOUS ROCK METAMORPHIC ROCK melting metamorphism weathering and erosion weathering and erosion compaction and cementation melting cooling

40 ESSENTIAL NATURAL SCIENCE 2 Unit 9 HOMECONTENTS RESOURCES CLOSE BACK LINKS Links How do rocks undergo change? http://www.classzone.com/books/eart h_science/terc/content/investigations/ es0602/es0602page01.cfm?chapter_n o=investigation Observe animations of processes that occur along plate boundaries. http://www.classzone.com/books/eart h_science/terc/content/visualizations/ es0804/es0804page01.cfm?chapter_n o=visualization http://www.classzone.com/books/eart h_science/terc/content/visualizations/ es0804/es0804page01.cfm?chapter_n o=visualization The Earth: A living planet http://www.seed.slb.com/en/s cictr/watch/living_planet/inde x.htm The rock cycle diagram http://www.learner.org/interac tives/rockcycle/diagram.html Animated guide: volcanoes http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/s cience/nature/4972366.stm Interactives: Volcanoes http://www.learner.org/inter actives/volcanoes/ Earthquakes http://www.bbc.co.uk/scie nce/hottopics/naturaldisa sters/earthquakes.shtml http://www.bbc.co.uk/scie nce/hottopics/naturaldisa sters/earthquakes.shtml Rocks and the rock cycle http://www.windows.ucar.edu/ tour/link=/earth/geology/rocks _intro.html How earthquakes happen http://news.bbc.co. uk/2/hi/4126809.stm Rockhounds http://www.fi.edu/fel lows/fellow1/oct98/ expert/index.html Plate tectonics http://www.bbc.co. uk/schools/gcsebit esize/geography/pl atetectonics/ The interior of the Earth http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/as tr161/lect/earth/interior.html


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