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Chapter 8 Section 2 Igneous and sedimentary rocks

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1 Chapter 8 Section 2 Igneous and sedimentary rocks
Chapter 8 Section 1 Minerals– Earth’s Jewels Chapter 8 Section 2 Igneous and sedimentary rocks Mr. Perez Chapter 8 Section 3 Metamorphic rocks and rock cycle

2 Section 1 Vocabulary Mineral- inorganic, solid materials found in nature Rock- solid material made up of two or more minerals Crystal- solid materials with a repeating pattern Gem- minerals that are rare and can be cut and polished , giving them a beautiful appearance Ore- mineral that contains enough useful substance that it can be sold for profit

3 What is a mineral? Examples: Graphite, quartz, fluorite, apatite
Minerals are inorganic, Solid materials formed in nature. Inorganic means that are not made by plants or animals Examples: Graphite, quartz, fluorite, apatite Ways minerals form: Melted rock (magma) cools and the particles are arranged in patterns 2. Evaporation can cause minerals to form, just as evaporated saltwater leaves behind salt 3. Precipitation can cause minerals to form– water cannot hold all the dissolved materials, forming solid masses of mineral Formation clues: APPEARANCE IS IMPORTANT Large mineral grains that fit like a puzzle = slow cooling magma Perfect crystals = plenty of room to cool


5 Properties of minerals
Crystals Cleavage & Fracture Color Streak & Luster Hardness Specific gravity

6 Properties of minerals
Cleavage Fracture Minerals that split into pieces with smooth, regular planes that reflect light Minerals that split into pieces with rough or jagged edges Halite & Mica Flint & Quartz

7 Properties of minerals
COLOR: the way the minerals look can be caused by impurities HARDNESS: Using the MOHS SCALE, classify how hard the mineral is STREAK: the color that appears when the minerals is slid on a white, unglazed tiled called a streak plate SPECIFIC GRAVITY: compares the weight of the mineral with an equal volume of water OTHER PROPERTIES: LUSTER: how light is reflected off the mineral Magnetism Taste Reactivity

8 Common minerals Most of the rock-forming minerals are silicates, which contain silicon and oxygen. Feldspar Quartz Other important rock-forming minerals are carbonates, which contain carbon and oxygen. Calcite

9 GEMS Gems are minerals that can be cut and polished , giving them a beautiful appearance– beautiful luster and color VERY RARE, because they form under special conditions Require extremely high pressures Examples of gems: diamonds, rubies, sapphires, emeralds

10 ores Ores are minerals that contain enough of a useful substance that it can be sold for profit Examples of ores: copper ore, aluminum ore, gold ore Ores are processed: Mined Smelted: melted and useful product separated from the rest Refined (purified) Processed

11 Section 2 Vocabulary Lava- molten rock material that exists at or above Earth’s surface Igneous rock- rock formed when melted rock material from inside Earth cools Extrusive- melted rock material cools on Earth’s surface Intrusive- melted rock materials cools below Earth’s surface Sedimentary rock- sediment collected in layers and compacted together

12 Igneous Rock Details Igneous Rocks Type Form from molten rock called
Have cooling rate that is Have crystal size that is Extrusive (outside) Lava (above surface) Fast Small Intrusive (inside) Magma (below surface) Slow Large


14 Organize igneous rocks
Igneous Rocks can be Light colored High silica content Have Are called Granitic Dark colored Low silica content Basaltic Are called


16 Classify Sedimentary rocks
Detrital Chemical Organic Form from Made of grains of minerals or other rocks Dissolved mineral in seawater, geysers, hot springs, or salty lakes Living matter that has died How form Moved and been deposited in layers by water, ice, gravity or wind Evaporation or other chemical processes Piled up and compressed into rock Where form Land or water Water Land or ocean Examples Sandstone, Shale, Conglomerate, Siltstone Halite Chalk, coal, limestone

17 Section 3 Vocabulary Pressure- force applied over a given area
Metamorphic rock- new rocks that form when existing rocks are heated or squeezed but not melted Foliated- rocks that have visible layers or elongated grains of mineral Nonfoliated- rocks that do not have distinct layers or bands of minerals Rock cycle- cycle that describes how different kinds of rock are related to one another and how rocks change from one type to another

18 Summarize metamorphic Rocks
Conditions of Metamorphic Rock Formation Temperature High Pressure Time Millions of years


20 Draw metamorphic rocks

21 DRAW Metamorphic rocks
Foliated rocks include: slate gneiss phyllite schist

22 Draw Metamorphic Rocks
Nonfoliated rocks include: quartzite soapstone marble


24 Rock cycle interactive

25 REMEMBER! Chapter 8 Vocabulary Quiz A: 12/4 or B: 12/5
Mighty Mineral Mini Project Presentations due A: 12/6 or B: 12/9 Rock Cycle quiz on A: 12/10 or B:12/11 Bring in old crayons, aluminum foil, wax paper and pencil sharpeners A: 12/10 or B: 12/11

26 Glencoe Science & McGraw Hill Publishing
Resources Florida Science Grade 7 Glencoe Science & McGraw Hill Publishing Google images

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