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Mr. Perez CHAPTER 8 SECTION 2 IGNEOUS AND SEDIMENTARY ROCKS CHAPTER 8 SECTION 3 METAMORPHIC ROCKS AND ROCK CYCLE CHAPTER 8 SECTION 1 MINERALS– EARTH’S.

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Presentation on theme: "Mr. Perez CHAPTER 8 SECTION 2 IGNEOUS AND SEDIMENTARY ROCKS CHAPTER 8 SECTION 3 METAMORPHIC ROCKS AND ROCK CYCLE CHAPTER 8 SECTION 1 MINERALS– EARTH’S."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mr. Perez CHAPTER 8 SECTION 2 IGNEOUS AND SEDIMENTARY ROCKS CHAPTER 8 SECTION 3 METAMORPHIC ROCKS AND ROCK CYCLE CHAPTER 8 SECTION 1 MINERALS– EARTH’S JEWELS

2  Mineral- inorganic, solid materials found in nature  Rock- solid material made up of two or more minerals  Crystal- solid materials with a repeating pattern  Gem- minerals that are rare and can be cut and polished, giving them a beautiful appearance  Ore- mineral that contains enough useful substance that it can be sold for profit SECTION 1 VOCABULARY

3 Examples: Graphite, quartz, fluorite, apatite Ways minerals form: 1.Melted rock (magma) cools and the particles are arranged in patterns 2. Evaporation can cause minerals to form, just as evaporated saltwater leaves behind salt 3. Precipitation can cause minerals to form– water cannot hold all the dissolved materials, forming solid masses of mineral Formation clues: APPEARANCE IS IMPORTANT Large mineral grains that fit like a puzzle = slow cooling magma Perfect crystals = plenty of room to cool WHAT IS A MINERAL? Minerals are inorganic, Solid materials formed in nature. Inorganic means that are not made by plants or animals

4 WHAT IS A MINERAL?

5  Crystals  Cleavage & Fracture  Color  Streak & Luster  Hardness  Specific gravity PROPERTIES OF MINERALS

6 CleavageFracture Minerals that split into pieces with smooth, regular planes that reflect light Minerals that split into pieces with rough or jagged edges Halite & MicaFlint & Quartz PROPERTIES OF MINERALS

7  COLOR: the way the minerals look can be caused by impurities  STREAK: the color that appears when the minerals is slid on a white, unglazed tiled called a streak plate  LUSTER: how light is reflected off the mineral  HARDNESS: Using the MOHS SCALE, classify how hard the mineral is  SPECIFIC GRAVITY: compares the weight of the mineral with an equal volume of water  OTHER PROPERTIES:  Magnetism  Taste  Reactivity PROPERTIES OF MINERALS

8  Most of the rock-forming minerals are silicates, which contain silicon and oxygen.  Feldspar  Quartz  Other important rock-forming minerals are carbonates, which contain carbon and oxygen.  Calcite COMMON MINERALS

9  Gems are minerals that can be cut and polished, giving them a beautiful appearance– beautiful luster and color  VERY RARE, because they form under special conditions  Require extremely high pressures  Examples of gems: diamonds, rubies, sapphires, emeralds GEMS

10  Ores are minerals that contain enough of a useful substance that it can be sold for profit  Examples of ores: copper ore, aluminum ore, gold ore  Ores are processed: 1.Mined 2.Smelted: melted and useful product separated from the rest 3.Refined (purified) 4.Processed ORES

11  Lava- molten rock material that exists at or above Earth’s surface  Igneous rock- rock formed when melted rock material from inside Earth cools  Extrusive- melted rock material cools on Earth’s surface  Intrusive- melted rock materials cools below Earth’s surface  Sedimentary rock- sediment collected in layers and compacted together SECTION 2 VOCABULARY

12 Igneous Rocks TypeForm from molten rock called Have cooling rate that is Have crystal size that is Extrusive (outside) Lava (above surface) FastSmall Intrusive (inside) Magma (below surface) SlowLarge IGNEOUS ROCK DETAILS

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14 Igneous Rocks can be Light colored Have High silica content Are called Granitic Dark colored Have Low silica content Are called Basaltic ORGANIZE IGNEOUS ROCKS

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16 DetritalChemicalOrganic Form fromMade of grains of minerals or other rocks Dissolved mineral in seawater, geysers, hot springs, or salty lakes Living matter that has died How formMoved and been deposited in layers by water, ice, gravity or wind Evaporation or other chemical processes Piled up and compressed into rock Where formLand or waterWaterLand or ocean ExamplesSandstone, Shale, Conglomerate, Siltstone HaliteChalk, coal, limestone CLASSIFY SEDIMENTARY ROCKS

17  Pressure- force applied over a given area  Metamorphic rock- new rocks that form when existing rocks are heated or squeezed but not melted  Foliated- rocks that have visible layers or elongated grains of mineral  Nonfoliated- rocks that do not have distinct layers or bands of minerals  Rock cycle- cycle that describes how different kinds of rock are related to one another and how rocks change from one type to another SECTION 3 VOCABULARY

18 Conditions of Metamorphic Rock Formation TemperatureHigh PressureHigh TimeMillions of years SUMMARIZE METAMORPHIC ROCKS

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20 DRAW METAMORPHIC ROCKS

21  Foliated rocks include: DRAW METAMORPHIC ROCKS slate gneiss schist phyllite

22  Nonfoliated rocks include: DRAW METAMORPHIC ROCKS quartzite marble soapstone

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24  ROCK CYCLE INTERACTIVE

25  Chapter 8 Vocabulary Quiz A: 12/4 or B: 12/5  Mighty Mineral Mini Project Presentations due A: 12/6 or B: 12/9  Rock Cycle quiz on A: 12/10 or B:12/11  Bring in old crayons, aluminum foil, wax paper and pencil sharpeners A: 12/10 or B: 12/11 REMEMBER!

26  Florida Science Grade 7 Glencoe Science & McGraw Hill Publishing  Google images RESOURCES


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