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Minerals Section 2.2.

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Presentation on theme: "Minerals Section 2.2."— Presentation transcript:

1 Minerals Section 2.2

2 Section 2.2 A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid with an orderly crystalline structure and a definite chemical composition. In order for a material to be considered a mineral it must have the following characteristics: Naturally Occurring – not man made Solid Substance – solid in normal temp. Orderly crystalline structure – atoms arranged in an order Definite chemical composition – has a specific chemical formula Generally considered inorganic – not living

3 Section 2.2 Salt Coal Silver Steel Sugar Gold Glass Wood Concrete
Which of the following items are minerals and which are not? Salt Coal Silver Steel Sugar Gold Glass Wood Concrete Snowflake Seashell Bone

4 Section 2.2 How minerals form:
Crystallization from magma – as magma cools, elements combine to form minerals ( Quartz, Feldspar, Muscovite) Precipitation – as Earth’s water evaporate dissolved substances can react to form minerals (Halite & Calcite) Pressure & Temperature – when minerals are exposed to pressure or temp their atomic structure can change to form new minerals (Talc & Muscovite) Hydrothermal solutions – extremely hot solutions come into contact with minerals and cause chemical reactions that form new minerals (Bornite & Chalcopyrite)

5 Crystallization of Magma

6 Mineral Groups Minerals are classified into groups based on their chemical composition Silicates Most common group of minerals Contain Silicon (Si) and Oxygen (O) The structure is a tetrahedron, which consists of one silicon atom and four oxygen atoms

7 Mineral Groups Carbonates Oxides Second most common mineral
Contain Carbon (C), Oxygen (O) and one or more other metallic elements Calcite (CaCO3) is the most common carbonate Limestone & Marble contain carbonates Oxides Contain Oxygen (O) and one or more other elements, usually metals Corundum (Al2O3) and Hematite (Fe2O3) are examples

8 Mineral Groups Sulfates & Sulfides Contain Sulfur (S)
Can form from mineral rich waters or thermal solutions Pyrite (FeS2) & Galena (PbS) are examples

9 Mineral Groups Halides Native Elements
Contain a halogen ion plus one or more other elements Includes the elements Fluorine (F) & Chlorine (Cl) Halite (NaCl) is an example Native Elements Are elements in their pure form Gold (Au), Silver (Ag) and Copper (Cu) are examples Some form from hydrothermal solutions

10 Mineral Groups Copper

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