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1. Put Safety Quiz, Safety Contract, and DonorsChoose form (if applicable) in front of you.  I will check them off. 2. Catalyst Question: Based on the.

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Presentation on theme: "1. Put Safety Quiz, Safety Contract, and DonorsChoose form (if applicable) in front of you.  I will check them off. 2. Catalyst Question: Based on the."— Presentation transcript:

1 1. Put Safety Quiz, Safety Contract, and DonorsChoose form (if applicable) in front of you.  I will check them off. 2. Catalyst Question: Based on the four characteristics of minerals, how do you think geologists identify different minerals?

2  Catalyst  Announcements  Mini-Lesson: Identifying Minerals  Lab: Geologist for a Day  Alternative: Mineral Packet  Work Time (Foldables)  Closing  Exit Ticket

3  Be sure that by the end of class on Thursday (10/25) you have completed your foldable on silicates, carbonates, and oxides.  I will be collecting/marking them. Only marked foldables may be used on the quiz.  If you were absent, see me during work time.

4  Up to 90% credit today  Be sure to stay up-to-date!

5

6  By the end of class, CWBAT create a lab procedure to determine the identities of unknown minerals.  CCSS Reading Grades ▪ Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on explanations in the text.  CRS Scientific Investigation: ▪ Determine the hypothesis for an experiment.  Assessments: ▪ Assessed in creation of lab procedure/completion of packet.

7  More than 3000 minerals in Earth’s crust  How do you identify so many?  Use a combination of tests!

8 1. Color 2. Luster 3. Texture 4. Streak 5. Hardness 6. Cleavage/Fracture 7. Density/Specific Gravity 8. Special Properties

9  Most noticeable characteristic  Can be due to the presence of trace elements  Quartz types ▪ Rose quartz (pink) contains manganese or titanium ▪ Jasper (red) contains iron oxides ▪ Amethyst (purple) contains ferric iron ▪ Citrine (orange) contains iron hydrates  All of these are quartz!  The least reliable way to identify a mineral These all have the same chemical composition, they just contain different trace elements!

10  The way a mineral reflects light from its surface.  Described as either  Metallic  Nonmetallic

11 METALLIC  Shiny; reflects like chrome on a car  Examples:  Copper, silver, gold, galena NONMETALLIC  Not shiny; described as dull, pearly, waxy, or silky  Examples:  Calcite, gypsum, sulfur, quartz

12  How a mineral feels to the touch  Descriptions:  Smooth  Rough  Ragged  Greasy  Soapy  Glassy

13  The color of a mineral when it is broken up and powdered.  Determine by rubbing across an unglazed porcelain plate  Will not always be the same as the external color!

14  Measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched  Mohs Scale of Hardness  Based on known hardness of 10 minerals ▪ 1: Talc (scratched by fingernail) ▪ 10: Diamond (scratches all common objects)  One of the most useful tests

15 copper coin the side of a steel nail Leaves mark on a streak plate

16  How minerals break is determined by atomic arrangement.  Minerals split along planes where atomic bonding is relatively weak.

17  Cleavage  A mineral has cleavage when it splits relatively easily and evenly along one or more flat planes.  Examples: ▪ Mica ▪ Perfect cleavage in one direction ▪ Halite ▪ Cubic cleavage (breaks in 3 directions)

18  Fracture  When minerals break with rough or jagged edges  Examples: ▪ Quartz ▪ Uneven breaks along jagged edges due to tightly bonded atoms* ▪ Rock obsidian ▪ Conchoidal fractures (arc- like patterns resembling clam shells)

19  When you lift two equally-sized minerals and one feels heavier.  Density  D = M/V  Reflects atomic weight and structure of a mineral  Specific Gravity  More accurate than estimates of density  S.G.= weight of substance/weight of equal volume of water at 4 ° C

20  Double refraction  Causes 1 ray of light to bend in 2 directions  Calcite, Iceland spar  Reaction with HCl  Reaction creates bubbles of CO2  Calcite (calcium carbonate)  Magnetism  Acts like a magnet  Magnetite, lodestone  Odor  Rotten egg smell  Sphalerite, sulfur  Volunteer needed!

21  Contacts out  Hair tied back  Absolutely NO  Gum  Food  Drinks (even water!)  If you did not turn in your forms, gather near the whiteboard for further instructions.

22 1. Read pages  Silently/independently 2. Groups of three  1) Supervisor ▪ Gathers materials/responsible for directions being followed ▪ Leads group through experiments  2) Data Manager ▪ Create chart/write  3) Primary Experimenter ▪ Carry out tests ▪ Acid, nail, etc.

23  On sheet in basket:  Magnifying glass (x1)  Add “Paper clip (x1)

24  Answer Questions:  Plan the Experiment ▪ #1, 3, 4  Analyze ▪ #1-4  Make sure that you have a hypothesis, chart, and write-up of the questions.  When finished, raise your hand.

25  Use pages 81-83

26  By the end of class, CWBAT create a lab procedure to determine the identities of unknown minerals.

27  On the back of your Catalyst sheet…  What are the most reliable ways to determine the identity of a mineral sample?  What are the least reliable ways?


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