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ECE5320 Mechatronics Assignment#01: Literature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Assignment#01: Literature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Topic: Piezoelectric.

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Presentation on theme: "ECE5320 Mechatronics Assignment#01: Literature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Assignment#01: Literature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Topic: Piezoelectric."— Presentation transcript:

1 ECE5320 Mechatronics Assignment#01: Literature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Assignment#01: Literature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Topic: Piezoelectric Sensors Prepared by: Luke Peacock Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Utah State University ; Tel: (435)820-0462; 03/11/2010

2 Outline References Basic Information Basic Working Principle illustrated Major applications Major specifications Pros and Cons Selection Criteria

3 References 1. "Piezoelectric sensors". Piezocryst website. Retrieved 03/10/10. "Piezoelectric sensors" 2.Alfredo Vázquez Carazo (January 2000). Novel Piezoelectric Transducers for High Voltage Measurements. Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya. pp. 242. 3.Karki, James (September 2000). "Signal Conditioning Piezoelectric Sensors" (PDF). Texas Instruments. Retrieved 3/10/10. "Signal Conditioning Piezoelectric Sensors" 4. 5. techman.pdf 6. theory.asp

4 Other Places for Information hemaPiezo.gif hemaPiezo.gif Multiphysics-Specifications/PiezoElectric/Actuators-and- sensors Multiphysics-Specifications/PiezoElectric/Actuators-and- sensors

5 Basic Information “The word piezo comes from the Greek word piezein, meaning to press or squeeze. Piezoelectricity refers to the generation of electricity or of electric polarity in dielectric crystals when subjected to mechanical stress and conversely, the generation of stress in such crystals in response to an applied voltage. In 1880, the Curie brothers found that quartz changed its dimensions when subjected to an electrical field and generated electrical charge when pressure was applied. Since that time, researchers have found piezoelectric properties in hundreds of ceramic and plastic materials.“ [2-Carazo]

6 Basic Information Continued: Although it was discovered in late 1800’s by the Curie brothers, it was nearly the 1950s before the piezoelectric effect was used for industrial sensing applications. It is a versatile tool for the measurement of various processes Useful in the determination of pressure, acceleration, strain or force in quality assurance, process control and development across many different industries.

7 Electrets Electrets are solids which have a permanent electrical polarization. The electrical analog of magnets (Figure 1). In general, the alignment of the internal electric dipoles would result in a charge which would be observable on the surface of the solid. In practice, this small charge is quickly dissipated by free charges from the surrounding atmosphere which are attracted by the surface charges. Figure 1: Internal structure of an electret

8 Principle of Operation Depending on the way a piezoelectric material is cut, three main types of operations can be distinguished 1. transversal 2. longitudinal 3. shear. Figure 2: Piezoelectric modes of operation

9 Transverse Effect “ A force is applied along a neutral axis (y) and the charges are generated along the (x) direction, perpendicular to the line of force. The amount of charge depends on the geometrical dimensions of the respective piezoelectric element. When dimensions a, b, c apply, C x = d xy F y b / a, where a is the dimension in line with the neutral axis, b is in line with the charge generating axis and d is the corresponding piezoelectric coefficient.”

10 Longitudinal Effect “ The amount of charge produced is strictly proportional to the applied force and is independent of size and shape of the piezoelectric element. Using several elements that are mechanically in series and electrically in parallel is the only way to increase the charge output. The resulting charge is C x = d xx F x n, where d xx is the piezoelectric coefficient for a charge in x-direction released by forces applied along x-direction (in pC/N). F x is the applied Force in x-direction [N] and n corresponds to the number of stacked elements.” pCN

11 Shear Effect “ Again, the charges produced are strictly proportional to the applied forces and are independent of the element’s size and shape. For n elements mechanically in series and electrically in parallel the charge is C x = 2d xx F x n.”

12 Sensor Circuit Models Figure 3: Piezoelectric Sensor Circuit Models

13 Major Applications  Medical  Hearing aids  Ultrasound  Aerospace  Modal testing  Wind tunnel instrumentation  Shock tube instrumentation  Power Generation  Nuclear instrumentation  Shock/Vibration monitoring

14 Major Applications  Automotive  Internal Combustion Engines  Traffic Sensing  Bearing wear sensors  Quality Assurance  Process Control  Machine monitoring

15 Major Applications  Mobile electronics  Touch-pads  Accelerometers  Military  Sonar  Night vision  Ballistics AND MANY MORE!!!!!

16 Major Specifications Electro-Mechanical Conversion (1 direction) 23 x 10-12m/V, 700 x 10-6N/V (3 direction) -33 x 10-12m/V Mechano-Electrical Conversion (1 direction) 12 x 10-3V per microstrain, 400 x 10-3V/ (3 direction) 13 x 10-3V/N Pyro-Electrical Conversion 8V/ o K (@ 25 o C) Capacitance 1.36 x 10-9F; Dissipation Factor of 0.018 @ 10 KHz; Maximum Operating Voltage DC: 280 V (yields 7 µm displacement in 1 direction) AC: 840 V (yields 21 µm displacement in 1 direction) Maximum Applied Force (at break, 1 direction) 6-9 kgF (yields voltage output of 830 to 1275 V)

17 Principle Comparisons Principle Strain Sensitivity [V/µ*]Threshold [µ*] Span to threshold ratio Piezoelectric50.00001100,000,000 Piezoresistive0.0001 2,500,000 Inductive0.0010.00052,000,000 Capacitive0.0050.0001750,000

18 Pros High sensitivity Wide input frequency range High input amplitude range Low power consumption Unique applications Cons Low bandwidth Limited displacement High cost Requires high impedance amplification No Static measurements.

19 Selection Criteria  Nonlinearities  Frequency Response  Sensitivity  Impedance  Repeatability  System Response  Error  Linearity and Accuracy

20 Selection Criteria  Eccentricity  First-Order System Response  Under-damped Second-Order System Response  Saturation  Backlash  Resolution  Range  Static and Coulomb Friction

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