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©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009. Identify an unknown rock sample by testing it through the basic properties of minerals. S1a- Demonstrates understanding of.

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Presentation on theme: "©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009. Identify an unknown rock sample by testing it through the basic properties of minerals. S1a- Demonstrates understanding of."— Presentation transcript:

1 ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009

2 Identify an unknown rock sample by testing it through the basic properties of minerals. S1a- Demonstrates understanding of properties of objects and materials. S3a- Demonstrates understanding of properties of Earth materials S6a- Uses technology and tools to gather data and extend the senses ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009

3 We now can use a reference chart. ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009 DiamondQuartzCalciteFloriteUNKNOWN ColorClear LusterYes Cleavage Fracture Cleavage Conchoidial Fracture Cleavage StreakNoneWhite CrystalsYes MagneticNo Density 3.5–3.53 g/cm g/cm g/cm gm/cm3 Hardness10734 Acid Test No Reaction Reacts No Reaction

4 How do we tell one mineral from another ? Using the mineral properties and tests that we’ve already learned, we can determine the identity of an unknown sample. ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009

5 The first property on the chart is color. Look at our unknown and determine what color it is. ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009

6 Fill your answer on the chart. ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009 DiamondQuartzCalciteFloriteUNKNOWN ColorClear LusterYes Cleavage Fracture Cleavage Conchoidial Fracture Cleavage StreakNoneWhite CrystalsYes MagneticNo Density 3.5–3.53 g/cm g/cm g/cm gm/cm3 Hardness10734 Acid Test No Reaction Reacts No Reaction Clear Which of the samples listed on the table is clear ? Which is NOT clear ? Can we eliminate any possibilities based on color ?

7 The second property on the chart is luster. Look at our unknown, maybe use a flashlight, and determine if it has luster. ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009

8 Fill your answer on the chart. ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009 DiamondQuartzCalciteFloriteUNKNOWN ColorClear LusterYes Cleavage Fracture Cleavage Conchoidial Fracture Cleavage StreakNoneWhite CrystalsYes MagneticNo Density 3.5–3.53 g/cm g/cm g/cm gm/cm3 Hardness10734 Acid Test No Reaction Reacts No Reaction Clear Yes Which of the samples listed on the table has luster ? Which does NOT have luster ? Can we eliminate any possibilities based on luster ?

9 The next property on the chart is cleavage or fracture. Our unknown shows evidence of cleavage. ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009

10 Fill your answer on the chart. ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009 DiamondQuartzCalciteFloriteUNKNOWN ColorClear LusterYes Cleavage Fracture Cleavage Conchoidial Fracture Cleavage StreakNoneWhite CrystalsYes MagneticNo Density 3.5–3.53 g/cm g/cm g/cm gm/cm3 Hardness10734 Acid Test No Reaction Reacts No Reaction Cleavage Which of the samples listed on the table has cleavage ? Which does NOT have cleavage ? Can we eliminate any possibilities based on cleavage ?

11 Fill your answer on the chart. ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009 DiamondQuartzCalciteFloriteUNKNOWN ColorClear LusterYes Cleavage Fracture Cleavage Conchoidial Fracture Cleavage StreakNoneWhite CrystalsYes MagneticNo Density 3.5–3.53 g/cm g/cm g/cm gm/cm3 Hardness10734 Acid Test No Reaction Reacts No Reaction We can eliminate Quartz as a possibility for our unknown sample. Quartz does conchoidial type fractures while our unknown does cleavage. We don’t have to look at the Quartz column ever again for this sample.

12 The next property on the chart is streak. When we scratch our unknown on a porcelain tile it leaves a white mark. ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009

13 Fill your answer on the chart. ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009 DiamondQuartzCalciteFloriteUNKNOWN ColorClear LusterYes Cleavage Fracture Cleavage Conchoidial Fracture Cleavage StreakNoneWhite CrystalsYes MagneticNo Density 3.5–3.53 g/cm g/cm g/cm gm/cm3 Hardness10734 Acid Test No Reaction Reacts No Reaction Which of the samples listed on the table left a white streak ? (Remember, don’t look at Quartz, it’s eliminated) Which does NOT have a white streak ? Can we eliminate any possibilities based on streak ? White

14 Fill your answer on the chart. ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009 DiamondQuartzCalciteFloriteUNKNOWN ColorClear LusterYes Cleavage Fracture Cleavage Conchoidial Fracture Cleavage StreakNoneWhite CrystalsYes MagneticNo Density 3.5–3.53 g/cm g/cm g/cm gm/cm3 Hardness10734 Acid Test No Reaction Reacts No Reaction We can eliminate Diamond as a possibility for our unknown sample. Diamonds leave no streak on our tile. We don’t have to look at the Diamond column ever again for this sample.

15 The next property on the chart is crystals. Look at our unknown and determine if it has a crystal type shape. ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009

16 Fill your answer on the chart. ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009 DiamondQuartzCalciteFloriteUNKNOWN ColorClear LusterYes Cleavage Fracture Cleavage Conchoidial Fracture Cleavage StreakNoneWhite CrystalsYes MagneticNo Density 3.5–3.53 g/cm g/cm g/cm gm/cm3 Hardness10734 Acid Test No Reaction Reacts No Reaction Which of the samples listed on the table has crystals ? (Remember, don’t look at Quartz or Diamond, they’re eliminated) Which does NOT have a crystals ? Can we eliminate any possibilities based on crystals ? Yes

17 The next property on the chart is magnetism. Can our sample pick up items like a magnet, or can it be picked up by a magnet ? ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009

18 Fill your answer on the chart. ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009 DiamondQuartzCalciteFloriteUNKNOWN ColorClear LusterYes Cleavage Fracture Cleavage Conchoidial Fracture Cleavage StreakNoneWhite CrystalsYes MagneticNo Density 3.5–3.53 g/cm g/cm g/cm gm/cm3 Hardness10734 Acid Test No Reaction Reacts No Reaction No Which of the samples listed on the table are magnetic ? (Remember, don’t look at Quartz or Diamond, they’re eliminated) Which are NOT magnetic ? Can we eliminate any possibilities based on magnetism ?

19 The next property on the chart is density. We can calculate the density of our unknown and enter it onto the chart. ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009

20 Fill in your answer on the chart. ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009 DiamondQuartzCalciteFloriteUNKNOWN ColorClear LusterYes Cleavage Fracture Cleavage Conchoidial Fracture Cleavage StreakNoneWhite CrystalsYes MagneticNo Density 3.5–3.53 g/cm g/cm g/cm gm/cm3 Hardness10734 Acid Test No Reaction Reacts No Reaction About 2.7 g/cm3 Is the calculated density of our sample the same as or close to a density on the chart? (Remember, don’t look at Quartz or Diamond, they’re eliminated) Can we eliminate any possibilities based on density ?

21 Fill your answer on the chart. ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009 DiamondQuartzCalciteFloriteUNKNOWN ColorClear LusterYes Cleavage Fracture Cleavage Conchoidial Fracture Cleavage StreakNoneWhite CrystalsYes MagneticNo Density 3.5–3.53 g/cm g/cm g/cm gm/cm3 About 2.7 g/cm3 Hardness10734 Acid Test No Reaction Reacts No Reaction We can eliminate Florite as a possibility for our unknown sample. The density of Florite is 3.18 g/cm3 and the density of our sample is 2.7 g/cm3.

22 Fill your answer on the chart. ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009 DiamondQuartzCalciteFloriteUNKNOWN ColorClear LusterYes Cleavage Fracture Cleavage Conchoidial Fracture Cleavage StreakNoneWhite CrystalsYes MagneticNo Density 3.5–3.53 g/cm g/cm g/cm gm/cm3 About 2.7 g/cm3 Hardness10734 Acid Test No Reaction Reacts No Reaction Now that we have eliminated every other possibility on our chart, we can say that our unknown is CALCITE !! In order to reinforce this statement, we should fill in the rest of the chart for the remaining properties of our sample.

23 The next property on the chart is hardness. We perform a scratch test on our sample. It IS scratched by Diamond (10), Quartz (7) and Florite (4), so we know it’s softer than those. It is not scratched by Calcite(3), and it doesn’t leave a scratch mark on Calcite either so it must be the same as Calcite (3). ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009

24 Fill in your answer on the chart. ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009 DiamondQuartzCalciteFloriteUNKNOWN ColorClear LusterYes Cleavage Fracture Cleavage Conchoidial Fracture Cleavage StreakNoneWhite CrystalsYes MagneticNo Density 3.5–3.53 g/cm g/cm g/cm gm/cm3 About 2.7 g/cm3 Hardness10734 Acid Test No Reaction Reacts No Reaction 3 We are approximating by comparison that the hardness of our sample is 3. Is this what we’d expect for Calcite ? If not we might have to run more tests.

25 The last property on the chart is the acid test. We put a drop of acid on our sample and it bubbles which means a reaction is occurring. ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009

26 Fill in your answer on the chart. ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009 DiamondQuartzCalciteFloriteUNKNOWN ColorClear LusterYes Cleavage Fracture Cleavage Conchoidial Fracture Cleavage StreakNoneWhite CrystalsYes MagneticNo Density 3.5–3.53 g/cm g/cm g/cm gm/cm3 About 2.7 g/cm3 Hardness Acid Test No Reaction Reacts No Reaction Reacts The sample reacts to acid and bubbles. Is this what we’d expect for Calcite ? If not we might have to run more tests.

27 BEFORE we say that this is Calcite, let’s double check the reference chart and our results one more time. ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009

28 Double check the reference chart. ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009 DiamondQuartzCalciteFloriteUNKNOWN ColorClear LusterYes Cleavage Fracture Cleavage Conchoidial Fracture Cleavage StreakNoneWhite CrystalsYes MagneticNo Density 3.5–3.53 g/cm g/cm g/cm gm/cm3 About 2.7 g/cm3 Hardness Acid Test No Reaction Reacts No Reaction Reacts Do ALL of our sample results match the chart results for Calcite ? At this point, we can safely say… Our unknown is CALCITE !!!!!

29 **SPECIAL NOTES** ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009 Just to keep things simple, “clear” was used for some of the answers on the chart. Really, it depends if something is mixed into the rock, the rock might have other colors completely; such as purples, blues, pinks or yellows. Also, to keep things simple, the word “luster” was used. When speaking about “luster” the term metallic or non-metallic is usually used. Non-Metallic Metallic

30 xxxx ©Dr. Mitchel Goodkin, 2009


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