Presentation on theme: "The Rock Cycle Indicates agents of change and the types of rock that are present on Earth and under what conditions they change."— Presentation transcript:
The Rock Cycle Indicates agents of change and the types of rock that are present on Earth and under what conditions they change
Rock Cycle Identify the agents of change… Sedimentary Igneous Metamorphic
Rock cycle processes Weathering and erosion Sedimentation lithification Heat and pressure from internal and tectonic forces Cooing and hardening Solidiification lithification
Litho- prefix meaning stone or rock Lithification Igneous Cooling Solidification rapid Cooling Solidification slow Sedimentation & Deposition Cementation of sediments
Igneous rocks From fire… Intrusive ; formed inside Earth Extrusive; formed outside Earth (surface) Mafic or felsic Magnesium and aluminum rich or quartz rich…
Igneous Rock Mafic & Extrusive
Igneous Rock, Basalt Columns
Sedimentary rock Formed from weathered and eroded rock particles Could not be the original rocks WHY or why not?
Layers in Sedimentary Rock How does it form?
Grand Canyon If Grand Canyon consists of layers of millions of years of sedimentary rock, how did it form? When did the layers form? When did the weathering and erosion take place? Were the rocks or the canyon, original rocks on Earth? Why or why not?
Is this the first rock on Earth?
Desert Geysers eject many minerals, heat and water
Metamorphic Rock Formed from heat and pressure Formed from tectonic pressures Re-crystallization Banding Distortion
Word meaning? Meta means change, transformation Morphic means referring to the form or structure of an object
How does metamorphic rock form?
Igneous rock that has weathered and eroded over time Note the globs of volcanic rock that solidified Dark colors due to elements such as magnesium, aluminum, (iron maybe)
Volcanic rock weathered by water and wind.
Sedimentary rock Sandstone; made from particles of other rock, finely weathered and compacted; Glued with calcite mineral On sea floor Seas contain abundance of calcite Shelled organisms are made of calcite
Extrusive Igneous Rock Basalt Columns
Basalt hexagonal shapes Devil’s Tower; national monument in Wyoming Basalt is extrusive mafic igneous rock Contains abudance of magnesium
Granite The most common intrusive felsic igneous rock on Earth Most common rock of continental crust Mostly quartz, horneblende and feldspar
Chalk is a type of limestone Formed on seafloor Limestone metamorphosed becomes marble Where would we find marble? Why?
Weathered by wind and water
Rock type? Why?
The Giant’s Causeway Ireland
Stone Mountain, GA A natural pluton intrusive igneous rock
Ancient volcanic necks
Beautiful sandstone landscapes Iron oxidized is iron oxide Fe 2 O 3 (rust) Hence the coloring
The Palisades in Northern New Jersey Overlooking the Hudson River Diabase; extrusive igneous (mafic) Similar to basalt This region was once overrun by volcanic fields Prior to the volcanic action, rock was subjected to tectonic, subduction forces What type of rock lies below the Palisades?
The Palisades in NJ overlooking the Hudson River
Metamorphic folds- bands
Classic metamorphic rock Re-crystallization of minerals due to heat Pressure distorts Bands of minerals evident Pressure creates friction that aids in heat production Deep in Earth
Why aren’t fossils found in metamorphic or igneous rock?
Striations of layered sandstone
Sedimentation forms layers What forms the shape of this rock? Where is the oldest rock in this rock? The youngest rock? WHY?
Volcanic – Igneous Large or small crystals?
Desert Geysers in the black rock canyon of Nevada Note the colors of nature Orangy red due to oxidized iron Yellow- sulfur Green is mold/algae Water and Hydrogen sulfide and Carbon dioxide – gases released
Minerals from Earth interior may combine to form rock
Green Italian Marble - Metamorphic
Marble shows classic re-crystallization Distortion Hard, dense rock due to pressurization Used for government buildings, monuments,businesses, schools Flooring- lasts forever Pink, white, green- high polish possible Beautiful, functional-valued quarries