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Lecture 18 Varimax Factors and Empircal Orthogonal Functions

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Syllabus Lecture 01Describing Inverse Problems Lecture 02Probability and Measurement Error, Part 1 Lecture 03Probability and Measurement Error, Part 2 Lecture 04The L 2 Norm and Simple Least Squares Lecture 05A Priori Information and Weighted Least Squared Lecture 06Resolution and Generalized Inverses Lecture 07Backus-Gilbert Inverse and the Trade Off of Resolution and Variance Lecture 08The Principle of Maximum Likelihood Lecture 09Inexact Theories Lecture 10Nonuniqueness and Localized Averages Lecture 11Vector Spaces and Singular Value Decomposition Lecture 12Equality and Inequality Constraints Lecture 13L 1, L ∞ Norm Problems and Linear Programming Lecture 14Nonlinear Problems: Grid and Monte Carlo Searches Lecture 15Nonlinear Problems: Newton’s Method Lecture 16Nonlinear Problems: Simulated Annealing and Bootstrap Confidence Intervals Lecture 17Factor Analysis Lecture 18Varimax Factors, Empircal Orthogonal Functions Lecture 19Backus-Gilbert Theory for Continuous Problems; Radon’s Problem Lecture 20Linear Operators and Their Adjoints Lecture 21Fréchet Derivatives Lecture 22 Exemplary Inverse Problems, incl. Filter Design Lecture 23 Exemplary Inverse Problems, incl. Earthquake Location Lecture 24 Exemplary Inverse Problems, incl. Vibrational Problems

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Purpose of the Lecture Choose Factors Satisfying A Priori Information of Spikiness (varimax factors) Use Factor Analysis to Detect Patterns in data (EOF’s)

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Part 1: Creating Spiky Factors

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can we find “better” factors that those returned by svd() ?

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mathematically S = CF = C’ F’ with F’ = M F and C’ = M -1 C where M is any P×P matrix with an inverse must rely on prior information to choose M

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one possible type of prior information factors should contain mainly just a few elements

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example of rock and minerals rocks contain minerals minerals contain elements MineralComposition QuartzSiO 2 RutileTiO 2 AnorthiteCaAl 2 Si 2 O 8 FosteriteMg 2 SiO 4

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example of rock and minerals rocks contain minerals minerals contain elements MineralComposition QuartzSiO 2 RutileTiO 2 AnorthiteCaAl 2 Si 2 O 8 FosteriteMg 2 SiO 4 factors most of these minerals are “simple” in the sense that each contains just a few elements

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spiky factors factors containing mostly just a few elements

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How to quantify spikiness?

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variance as a measure of spikiness

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modification for factor analysis

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depends on the square, so positive and negative values are treated the same

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f (1) = [1, 0, 1, 0, 1, 0] T is much spikier than f (2) = [1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1] T

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f (2) =[1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1] T is just as spiky as f (3) = [1, -1, 1, -1, -1, 1] T

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“varimax” procedure find spiky factors without changing P start with P svd() factors rotate pairs of them in their plane by angle θ to maximize the overall spikiness

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fBfB fAfA f’ B f’ A

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determine θ by maximizing

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after tedious trig the solution can be shown to be

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and the new factors are in this example A=3 and B=5

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now one repeats for every pair of factors and then iterates the whole process several times until the whole set of factors is as spiky as possible

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OldNew f5f5 f2f2 f3f3 f4f4 f’5f’5 f’2f’2 f’3f’3 f’4f’4 SiO 2 TiO 2 Al 2 O 3 FeO total MgO CaO Na 2 O K2OK2O example: Atlantic Rock dataset

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OldNew f5f5 f2f2 f3f3 f4f4 f’5f’5 f’2f’2 f’3f’3 f’4f’4 SiO 2 TiO 2 Al 2 O 3 FeO total MgO CaO Na 2 O K2OK2O example: Atlantic Rock dataset not so spiky

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OldNew f5f5 f2f2 f3f3 f4f4 f’5f’5 f’2f’2 f’3f’3 f’4f’4 SiO 2 TiO 2 Al 2 O 3 FeO total MgO CaO Na 2 O K2OK2O example: Atlantic Rock dataset spiky

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Part 2: Empirical Orthogonal Functions

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row number in the sample matrix could be meaningful example: samples collected at a succession of times time

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column number in the sample matrix could be meaningful example: concentration of the same chemical element at a sequence of positions distance

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S = CF becomes

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distance dependence time dependence

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S = CF becomes each loading: a temporal pattern of variability of the corresponding factor each factor: a spatial pattern of variability of the element

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S = CF becomes there are P patterns and they are sorted into order of importance

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S = CF becomes factors now called EOF’s (empirical orthogonal functions)

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example 1 hypothetical mountain profiles what are the most important spatial patterns that characterize mountain profiles

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this problem has space but not time s( x j, i ) = Σ k=1 p c ki f (k) (x j )

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this problem has space but not time s( x j, i ) = Σ k=1 p c ki f (k) (x j ) factors are spatial patterns that add together to make mountain profiles

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elements: elevations ordered by distance along profile

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EOF 3EOF 2EOF 1 index, i f i (1) f i (2) f i (3) λ 1 = 38 λ 2 = 13 λ 3 = 7

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factor loading, C i2 factor loading, C i3

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example 2 spatial-temporal patterns (synthetic data)

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the data

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spatial pattern at a single time x y t=1

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the data time

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the data

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461 912 136 4 6 1 9 1 2 1 3 6 s need to unfold each 2D image into vector

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index, i λiλi p=3

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EOF 1 EOF 2 EOF 3 loadng 1 loadng 2 loadng 3 (A) (B) time, t

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example 3 spatial-temporal patterns (actual data) sea surface temperature in the Pacific Ocean

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29 S 29 N 124 E290 E latitude longitude equatorial Pacific Ocean sea surface temperature (black = warm) CAC Sea Surface Temperature

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the image is 30 by 84 pixels in size, or 2520 pixels total to use svd(), the image must be unwrapped into a vector of length 2520

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2520 positions in the equatorial Pacific ocean 399 times“element” means temperature

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singular values, ii index, i singular values

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singular values, ii index, i singular values no clear cutoff for P, but the first 12 singular values are considerably larger than the rest

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using SVD to approximate data

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A) OriginalB) Based on first 5 EOF’s

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