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Characterizing Mineral Dust for Surveillance Purposes A Multidisciplinary Approach Johann Engelbrecht Desert Research Institute (DRI), Reno, Nevada, U.S.A.

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Presentation on theme: "Characterizing Mineral Dust for Surveillance Purposes A Multidisciplinary Approach Johann Engelbrecht Desert Research Institute (DRI), Reno, Nevada, U.S.A."— Presentation transcript:

1 Characterizing Mineral Dust for Surveillance Purposes A Multidisciplinary Approach Johann Engelbrecht Desert Research Institute (DRI), Reno, Nevada, U.S.A. Weather Impacts Decision Aids (WIDA) Workshop Reno, Nevada - March 13, 2012 Johann Engelbrecht Desert Research Institute (DRI), Reno, Nevada, U.S.A. Weather Impacts Decision Aids (WIDA) Workshop Reno, Nevada - March 13, 2012 RJ Lee Group

2 Baghdad, Iraq Shamal (Dust Storm) July 30, 2009 Iraq Iran Saudi Arabia Syria Kuwait

3 AfghanistanAfghanistan October 8, 2004

4 DOD Projects  Enhanced Particulate Matter Surveillance Program (EPMSP): 2005 – 2010 Provide USCENTCOM with scientifically founded information on mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of dust collected within their AOR Provide USCENTCOM with scientifically founded information on mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of dust collected within their AOR Assess potential human health risks Assess potential human health risks Assess harmful effect on military equipment Assess harmful effect on military equipment  Mobile Aerosol Monitoring System for Department of Defense – In Theater Aerosol Monitoring Initiative (ITAMI): ? Provide continuous measurements of chemical, optical, morphological properties of airborne dust and other pollutants Provide continuous measurements of chemical, optical, morphological properties of airborne dust and other pollutants Address health issues Address health issues Support battlefield operations – optical surveillance & remote sensing Support battlefield operations – optical surveillance & remote sensing  Enhanced Particulate Matter Surveillance Program (EPMSP): 2005 – 2010 Provide USCENTCOM with scientifically founded information on mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of dust collected within their AOR Provide USCENTCOM with scientifically founded information on mineralogical, chemical and physical properties of dust collected within their AOR Assess potential human health risks Assess potential human health risks Assess harmful effect on military equipment Assess harmful effect on military equipment  Mobile Aerosol Monitoring System for Department of Defense – In Theater Aerosol Monitoring Initiative (ITAMI): ? Provide continuous measurements of chemical, optical, morphological properties of airborne dust and other pollutants Provide continuous measurements of chemical, optical, morphological properties of airborne dust and other pollutants Address health issues Address health issues Support battlefield operations – optical surveillance & remote sensing Support battlefield operations – optical surveillance & remote sensing

5 DOD/DOE/EPA Projects  Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP): Ongoing Measure fugitive dust emissions from U.S. DoD activities Measure fugitive dust emissions from U.S. DoD activities  Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP): Ongoing Measure fugitive dust emissions from U.S. DoD activities Measure fugitive dust emissions from U.S. DoD activities

6 Title  Content IRAN SAUDI ARABIA ETHIOPIA SUDAN EGYPT JORDAN OMAN PAKISTAN TURKMENISTAN UZBEKISTAN KYRGYZSTAN KAZAKHSTAN KENYA SOMALIA YEMEN TAJIKISTAN SEYCHELLES SYRIA EPMSP - Sampling Sites Site 6. Balad, Iraq Site 7. Baghdad, Iraq Site 8. Tallil Iraq Site 9. Tikrit, Iraq Site 10. Taji, Iraq Site 11. Al Asad, Iraq Site 4. Qatar Site 1. Djibouti Site 5. United Arab Emirates Site 2. Bagram, Afghanistan Site 3. Khowst, Afghanistan Site 12. Northern Kuwait Site 13. Central Kuwait Site 14. Coastal Kuwait Site 15. Southern Kuwait Sampling plan: 15 Sites, 1 in 6 day, 24 hr, 12 months

7 EPMSP - Aerosol sampling  Three Airmetrics Minivol ® filter samplers installed at each of the  Three Airmetrics Minivol ® filter samplers installed at each of the 15 sampling sites  Three size fractions of ambient aerosols: <2.5  m aerodynamic diameter <2.5  m aerodynamic diameter (PM 2.5 ) <10  m aerodynamic diameter <10  m aerodynamic diameter (PM 10 ) Total Suspended Particulates Total Suspended Particulates (TSP)  Aerosol samples collected on 47 mm: (2 sampling days/month) Teflon (2 sampling days/month) (2 sampling days/month) Quartz fiber (2 sampling days/month) (1 sampling day/month Nuclepore membrane (1 sampling day/month  Sampling for during 2006/7, providing filters for chemical, mineralogical, and individual particle analysis  Sampling for one year, on a 1 in 6 day sampling schedule during 2006/7, providing 3136 filters for chemical, mineralogical, and individual particle analysis  Three Airmetrics Minivol ® filter samplers installed at each of the  Three Airmetrics Minivol ® filter samplers installed at each of the 15 sampling sites  Three size fractions of ambient aerosols: <2.5  m aerodynamic diameter <2.5  m aerodynamic diameter (PM 2.5 ) <10  m aerodynamic diameter <10  m aerodynamic diameter (PM 10 ) Total Suspended Particulates Total Suspended Particulates (TSP)  Aerosol samples collected on 47 mm: (2 sampling days/month) Teflon (2 sampling days/month) (2 sampling days/month) Quartz fiber (2 sampling days/month) (1 sampling day/month Nuclepore membrane (1 sampling day/month  Sampling for during 2006/7, providing filters for chemical, mineralogical, and individual particle analysis  Sampling for one year, on a 1 in 6 day sampling schedule during 2006/7, providing 3136 filters for chemical, mineralogical, and individual particle analysis

8 Analysis of Teflon & quartz fiber filters  Gravimetry  X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF), (40 major, minor & trace elements: Na to U)  Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), (trace elements: As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, V, Zn) (trace elements: As, Be, Cd, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sr, V, Zn)  Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), (water soluble Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Na +, K + )  Ion Chromatography (IC), (water soluble Cl -, NO 3 -, PO 4 3-, SO 4 =, NH 4 + )  Thermal Optical Transmission (TOT), (elemental & organic carbon)

9 Individual Particle Analysis of Nuclepore Filters Scanning Electron Microscopy  Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) (approximately 250 images & EDS spectra) (SEM) (approximately 250 images & EDS spectra)  Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) individual particle chemistry & morphology (approximately 250 filters, 1000 particles/filter & 28 chemical species) Scanning Electron Microscopy  Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) (approximately 250 images & EDS spectra) (SEM) (approximately 250 images & EDS spectra)  Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) individual particle chemistry & morphology (approximately 250 filters, 1000 particles/filter & 28 chemical species)

10 SEM, Secondary Electron Images & EDS Spectra Quartz particles, with coating of clay minerals, possibly montmorillonite/illite, and needles of palygorskite Rhombohedral calcite crystal with few small rods of possibly palygorkite attached Tikrit, Iraq 2µm 6µm

11 Mineralogy by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Coastal Kuwait Halite Calcite Clay (Kaolinite) Chlorite Mica Feldspar Quartz Halite Calcite Clay (Kaolinite) Chlorite Mica Feldspar Quartz TSP PM 2.5

12 Resuspension Chamber

13 Three Wavelength Photoacoustic (Absorption) Instrument with Nephelometer (Scattering) Sensor

14 Nephelometer & Photoacoustic Single Scattering Albedo Lanzarote, Vega de Femes

15 Single Scattering Albedo vs % Fe 2 O 3 (Hematite) PM 2.5

16 Mineralogy by Optical Microscopy 200  m 50  m Dust Sample from Mali -Bamako Opaque oxide particles together and transparent quartz grains with reddish coatings of iron oxides (polarized light microscopy) Transparent quartz grains with reddish parches of iron oxides on surfaces (polarized light microscopy)

17 SEM, Secondary Electron Image Coastal Kuwait The large (approx. 80  m) particle in the center of the field (upper left, magnified upper right) is quartz, as identified by the EDS spectrum (lower figure) of silicon

18 SEM, Secondary Electron Image Coastal Kuwait EDS analysis (lower part of figure) of the grain coating (“desert varnish”) points to a magnesium-aluminium silicate with some iron, possibly a clay & hematite mixture (analysed in small white square)

19 Soils map of Iraq & sampling sites Al Asad Balad Tikrit Tallil Taji Baghdad Euphrates River Tigris River

20 Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) of PM 10 Chemical Results from Baghdad, Iraq

21 ConclusionConclusion The character of airborne mineral dust can best be understood from measurements of their mineralogical, chemical, and physical properties by multiple analytical techniques  The character of airborne mineral dust can best be understood from measurements of their mineralogical, chemical, and physical properties by multiple analytical techniques

22 Thanks, Questions or Comments? Thanks, Questions or Comments? Publications & Reports Engelbrecht et al. (2009). Characterizing mineral dusts and other aerosols from the Middle East – Part 1: Ambient sampling. Inhalation Toxicology, 21:4, Engelbrecht et al. (2009). Characterizing mineral dusts and other aerosols from the Middle East – Part 2: Grab samples and re-suspensions. Inhalation Toxicology, 21:4, National Research Council of the National Acadamies, (2010). Review of the Department of Defense Enhanced Particulate Matter Surveillance Program Report, The National Acadamies Press, Washington D.C., 85 pp. Moosmüller, H., J. P. Engelbrecht, M. Skiba, G. Frey, R. K. Chakrabarty, and W. P. Arnott (2011). Single Scattering Albedo of Fine Mineral Dust Aerosols Controlled by Iron Concentration. J. Geophys. Res., submitted. Moosmüller, H., J. P. Engelbrecht, M. Skiba, G. Frey, R. K. Chakrabarty, and W. P. Arnott (2011). Single Scattering Albedo of Fine Mineral Dust Aerosols Controlled by Iron Concentration. J. Geophys. Res., submitted. Publications & Reports Engelbrecht et al. (2009). Characterizing mineral dusts and other aerosols from the Middle East – Part 1: Ambient sampling. Inhalation Toxicology, 21:4, Engelbrecht et al. (2009). Characterizing mineral dusts and other aerosols from the Middle East – Part 2: Grab samples and re-suspensions. Inhalation Toxicology, 21:4, National Research Council of the National Acadamies, (2010). Review of the Department of Defense Enhanced Particulate Matter Surveillance Program Report, The National Acadamies Press, Washington D.C., 85 pp. Moosmüller, H., J. P. Engelbrecht, M. Skiba, G. Frey, R. K. Chakrabarty, and W. P. Arnott (2011). Single Scattering Albedo of Fine Mineral Dust Aerosols Controlled by Iron Concentration. J. Geophys. Res., submitted. Moosmüller, H., J. P. Engelbrecht, M. Skiba, G. Frey, R. K. Chakrabarty, and W. P. Arnott (2011). Single Scattering Albedo of Fine Mineral Dust Aerosols Controlled by Iron Concentration. J. Geophys. Res., submitted.

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