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Formation Minerals form in two basic ways: 1.Cooling of hot molten rock Liquid  Solid 2.Evaporating of solutions Ex. Sea salt.

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Presentation on theme: "Formation Minerals form in two basic ways: 1.Cooling of hot molten rock Liquid  Solid 2.Evaporating of solutions Ex. Sea salt."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Formation Minerals form in two basic ways: 1.Cooling of hot molten rock Liquid  Solid 2.Evaporating of solutions Ex. Sea salt

3 Mineral growth mations/mineral_growth.htmhttp://www.wwnorton.com/college/geo/ani mations/mineral_growth.htm

4 What is a mineral?

5 Minerals 4 basic rules for classifying minerals 1.Inorganic 2.Naturally occurring 3.Regular crystal arrangement (solid) 4.Definite Chemical Composition

6 Inorganic Anything that is not or never was alive ever Mostly anything that is not a carbon molecule

7 Naturally occurring solid Anything that is not man made  Must exist in nature, Naturally

8 Regular crystal arrangement MUST be a Solid!! Makes a shape or Pattern Examples- Hexagonal Cubic

9 Definite Chemical composition Chemical formula is always the same never changes

10 So what is a mineral? Gold Coal Diamond Ice cubes Rubber Brass Silver Grass Quartz Chrome Paper Steel Copper Sugar Salt Marble

11 Mineral Gold Naturally occurring solid Inorganic Definite shape Definite chemical composition Au

12 Non-mineral Coal Naturally occurring solid –Organic

13 Mineral Diamond Naturally occurring solid Inorganic Definite shape Definite chemical composition C

14 Non-Mineral Ice Cube -Man made Inorganic Definite chemical composition H 2 0 Outside naturally ?? Mineral (debatable)

15 Non-mineral Rubber –Naturally occurring solid

16 Non-Mineral Brass –Naturally occurring solid

17 Mineral Silver Naturally occurring solid Inorganic Definite shape Definite chemical composition Ag

18 Non-mineral Grass Naturally occurring solid -Inorganic

19 Mineral Quartz Naturally occurring solid Inorganic Definite shape Definite chemical composition SiO 2

20 Non-Mineral Chrome –Naturally occurring solid

21 Non-Mineral Paper Naturally occurring solid –Inorganic

22 Non-Mineral Steel –Natural occurring solid

23 Mineral Copper Naturally occurring solid Inorganic Definite shape Definite chemical composition Cu

24 Non-Mineral Sugar Naturally occurring solid -Inorganic Definite shape Definite chemical composition C 12 H 22 O 11

25 Mineral Salt Naturally occurring solid Inorganic Definite shape Definite chemical composition NaCl

26 Non-Mineral Marble Naturally occurring solid -Inorganic

27 So where do Minerals come from? Atoms –Substance that can not be broken down into simpler substances –Reality 

28 Breaking Down the periodic table elements Every periodic table is the same and different AhhhAHAH! Atomic # –Larger whole number Symbol –Short hand –Not always easy Name –Not always shown Atomic mass –Avg of all atomic masses proton + Neutrons

29 Breaking Down the periodic table elements # of Protons –Positive charge –Same as atomic # –NEVER CHANGES!!! Ever! # of Neutrons –No charge –Changes (Isotope) # of electrons –Negative charge –In shells add all of them –If equal P no charge if different ION MUST DO Math Atomic mass- Protons = 60 neutrons Remember its an average so take smallest #

30 Match name with symbol –mineral forming elements –O–O –Ca –Si –Na –Al –K–K –Fe –Mg

31 Bell ringer The smallest unit of an element that has all the basic properties of the element is called a. proton. b.ion. c.atom. d.isotope

32 E NERGY L EVELS  Areas of space where electrons can move  Closer to nucleus = lower energy  Further from nucleus = high energy  ELECTRONS CANNOT EXIST BETWEEN ENERGY LEVELS!!!  Numbered: level closest to nucleus = 1

33 A TOM AS A HOTEL  Energy levels = floors  Orbitals = rooms  1 st floor has one room  Second floor has four rooms etc  Electrons can move to any room on any floor  Electrons go in pairs Ni

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35 A TOMIC BONDING  Outer shell electrons involved  Less electrons 1,2, or 3… Lose electrons  More electrons 4+ Gain electrons  Two Basic types  Covalent (sharing)  Ionic (borrowing)

36 I ONIC BONDING  ION= Charged particle  Positive ion Less electrons  Negative ion More electrons  Opposites attract  Mostly metal and non metal

37 B REAKING DOWN CHEMICAL FORMULAS

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39 Color Not a reliable identification technique –Reason #1 Similarities in color among minerals Fluorite Amethyst Reason # 2 Minerals are outside! They get weathered Pyrite (Not Weathered ) Pyrite (Weathered )

40 Mineral Identification 1.Hardness 2.Luster 3.Streak 4.Cleavage & Fracture

41 Hardness Moh’s Hardness scale –1 thru 10 –1 being the softest 10 being the hardest

42 Hardness 1 Softest –Can be scratched by a fingernail Talc

43 Hardness 2 Still very soft can be scratched by most fingernails Gypsum

44 Hardness 3 Harder can be scratched with a penny (copper) Calcite

45 Hardness 4 Harder then 3 but can still be scratched with a steel nail Fluorite

46 Hardness 5 Still Harder can usually be scratched with a steel nail Apatite

47 Hardness 6 Harder can sometimes be scratched with a steel nail Feldspar

48 Hardness 7 Hard –Scratches glass and everything lower then 7 Quartz

49 Hardness 8 Harder –Scratches glass and quartz Topaz

50 Hardness 9 Very Hard –Scratches everything but Diamonds Corundum(Ruby)

51 Hardness 10 Hardest it goes –Can be scratched by Diamonds only Diamond

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53 Luster The light that is reflected from a minerals surface is called luster. –Two basic types

54 Luster Metallic –P–Polished surface similar to metal. –E–Ex. Pyrite Galena Copper

55 Non-metallic –V–Vitreous –E–Everything else Talc Quartz

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57 Streak a mineral in it’s powder form, is known as the minerals STREAK. –Rub a mineral across an unglazed piece of ceramic tile known as a streak plate.

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59 Cleavage –Tendency for a mineral to split or “cleave” at a specific plane. Muscovite –Cleaves in sheets –1 plane Halite – cube – 3 = 90

60 Fracture If a mineral breaks unevenly it is said to fracture. Cleavage = 0 –Example: Quartz

61 Other Possible Miscellaneous Tests

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63 1.Amethyst (purple) A B C DE 2.Metallic A B C D 3.Red/brown streak AB C D 4.No cleavage (fracture) A B C D 5.Hardness of 7 (quartz) A B C D 6. Other identifying characteristics (Misc.) ___Calcite ___Sulfur ___Graphite ___Magnetite ___Halite


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