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Sediment thickness of ocean floor Very thin –Mid-Atlantic ridge Very thick –Smooth sea floor
Sediment Texture and color Grain size –Boulders to colloids Color –White or creamy – biological origin –Gray – high in silica –Red clay- iron oxide
Sediment classification by particle size Boulder>256 mm Cobble64-256 mm Pebble4 –64 mm Granule2-4 mm Sand0.062 –2mm Silt0.004 –0.062 mm Clay<0.004 mm
Types of sediment Well-sorted sediments –Particles of one size Poorly sorted sediments –A mixture of size
Sediment transport Rivers Glaciers Currents
Classification of Marine sediment by source Terrigenous Sediments Biogenous Sediments Hydrogenous Sediments Cosmogenous Sediments
Terrigenous (lithogenous) Sediments Originates on the continents –derived from igneous rocks Granite - the source of quartz and clay
Biogenous Sediments Made of siliceous and calcareous compounds –near continental margins
Hydrogenous Sediments Minerals that have precipitated directly from sea water Eg manganese nodules Phosphorite nodules
Cosmogenous Sediments Extraterrestrial origin microtektites.
Distribution of Marine Sediments Neritic sediments Pelagic sediments
Average thickness of marine sediments Continental shelves2.5 Km Continental slopes9 km Continental rises8 km Deep ocean floor0.6 km
Sediments of continental margins Terrigenous lithification
Sediment thickness of Deep- Ocean Basin Atlantic and Pacific abyssal plains oceanic ridges
Sediments of Deep Ocean Basin Turbidites Clays Oozes Hydrogenous Materials
Hydrogenous sediments Originate from chemical reaction Evaporites –Eg, calcium carbonate, –Calcium sulfate –Sodium chloride Oolite sand
Studying Sediments clamshell sampler piston corer
Paleoceanography The study of the Ocean’s past
The Economic Importance of Marine Sediments crude oil natural gas
Sediments Sediment particles that accumulate in a loose, unconsolidated form. Originate from weathering and erosion of rocks activity of living organisms.
Oceanography Stratigraphy 2. Terrigenous Sediments (Lithogenous) 3. Biogenous Sediments 4. Calcareous Ooze 5. Siliceous Ooze 6. Hydrogenous Sediments.
1 Introduction to Oceanography Sedimentology and Ocean Basin Topography.
Sediments Chapter 5. Sediments Particles of organic or inorganic matter that accumulate in a loose, unconsolidated form. Sediments are classified by particle.
Marine Sedimentation. Sediment in the Sea -Sediment is classified in two ways: Size and Origin -Size is based on the Wentworth grain-size scale -Size.
© 2016 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. 5 Oceanography, An Invitation to Marine Science | 9e Tom Garrison Sediments.
Chapter 4 The Sea Floor and Its Sediments. 4.1 Measuring the Depths Methods for measuring depths: Hand line and wire marked with fathoms, with a lead.
Sea Floor & Sediments Measuring the Depths Soundings Echo Sounder.
Chapter 5: Marine Sediments Fig Sediments reveal Earth history Sediments lithified Mineral composition Sedimentary texture Past climate Plate motions.
Ocean Sediments Origin and Distribution. Continental Margins and Ocean Basins Review from last week Shape of ocean floorShape of ocean floor Continental.
Pakistan Earthquake – 7.6 M agnitude October 8, 2005 (8:50 p.m. local time)
Ocean-Floor Sediments (19.3). Sources of Deep Ocean-Basin Sediments Refresher!!! What is a deep ocean-basin? Part of the ocean floor that is under deep.
Chapter 5 Sediments Oceanography An Invitation to Marine Science, 7th Tom Garrison.
SEDIMENTS Text Book – Chapter 5 Why do we care about oceanic sediments? -Continents are sites of erosion; -Oceans are sites of depositions; -Therefore.
Earth Science 14.3 Seafloor Sediments. Seafloor Sediments Except for steep areas of the continental slope and the crest of the mid-ocean ridge, most.
Sediments. What to Watch for? You will see the true face of the ocean floor Covered by sediments, gravel, silt and mud Sediment particles from land, from.
Study Guide available! Web site (dusk.geo.orst.edu/oceans) Go to the syllabus page and click on the Study Guide for Test#1.
Marine Sedimentation. Streams Rivers Glaciers Landslide (Gravity)
1 Distribution of sediments Distribution of sediments Seabed Resources Seabed Resources Sediments are particles of organic or inorganic matter that accumulate.
Chapter 4 Marine Sedimentation ©2003 Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Chapter 4 Marine Sediments Essentials of Oceanography 7 th Edition.
Warm Up 2/10/09 1)Which regions are thought to be the most level places on Earth? a. mid-ocean ridgesc. continental slopes b. deep-ocean trenchesd. abyssal.
Marine Sediments Chap 5. video Lithogenous/Terrigenous Sediment Derived from land Origin from weathering/erosion Mainly quartz (SiO 2 ) – resistant to.
Study Guide available! Web site (dusk2.geo.orst.edu/oceans) Go to the syllabus page and click on the Study Guide for Test#1.
Oceanography 101, Richard StricklandLecture 5© 2006 University of Washington 1 Sediments of the Sea Floor Figure 3.20.
CHAPTER 4: Marine Sediments Fig. CO-4 S. Marine sediments Eroded rock particles and fragments Eroded rock particles and fragments Transported to or produced.
Multimedia Manager A Microsoft® PowerPoint® Link Tool for forOceanography An Invitation to Marine Science 6 th Edition by Tom Garrison
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. CHAPTER 4 Marine Sediments.
Seafloor Sediments & Resources from the Seafloor Chapter 14, Sections 3 & 4.
Sediments! ☺ January 19, Wentworth Scale of Grain Size Boulder Cobble Pebble Granule Sand Silt Clay.
Exit Choose to view chapter section with a click on the section heading. ►Continental-Shelf SedimentsContinental-Shelf Sediments ►Deep-Ocean SedimentsDeep-Ocean.
Chapter 5: Marine Sediments Fig Marine sediments Eroded rock particles and fragments Transported to ocean Deposit by settling through water column.
Sediment Study Tools and Techniques Techniques and tools to study ocean sediments include: Clamshell sampler – collects a large sample of the top sediment.
Sediments Geologic Oceanography. What are Sediments? Particles entering the ocean Accumulate –Rapidly on continental margin (neritic) –Slowly in the deep.
The Sea Floor and Its Sediments An Introduction to the World’s Oceans Sverdrup et al. - Chapter Four - 8th Ed.
1 Distribution of sediments on the sea floor Distribution of sediments on the sea floor Seabed Resources Seabed Resources Sediments are particles of organic.
Today: Chapter 17, part I Earth beneath the Ocean Techniques of mapping the ocean floor Which parts make up a continental margin, and what is the difference.
SEAFLOOR SEDIMENTS Lithogenous Biogenous Hydrogenous Cosmogenous.
TYPES OF ROCKS & SEDIMENT TYPES OF ROCKS & SEDIMENT KL OCEANOGRAPHY.
Reading Material On reserve in: Ocean-Fisheries library (Oceanography Teaching Building) Undergrad Library (web access) “Ocean Basins”, from “Oceanography”
Sediments... are unconsolidated particulate materials that either precipitate from or are depo- sited by a fluid (e.g., water, wind); provide information.
OCEAN ____________ Chapter 12. ________ enter the ocean through rivers, glaciers, waves, winds, dissolution of ___________ particles, and chemical reactions.
Reading Material (see website for course) “Ocean Basins”, from “Oceanography” M.G. Gross, Prentice-Hall.
Marine sediments Eroded rock particles and fragments Transported to ocean Deposit by settling through water column Oceanographers decipher Earth.
CHAPTER 4: Marine Sediments Fig. CO-4. Marine sediments Eroded rock particles and fragments Eroded rock particles and fragments Transported to ocean Transported.
© 2006 Jones and Bartlett Publishers Chapter 4 Marine Sedimentation.
Chapter 5 Sediments. © 2006 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Look For The Following Key Ideas In Chapter 5 Sediment is particles of organic.
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