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Sediment thickness of ocean floor Very thin –Mid-Atlantic ridge Very thick –Smooth sea floor
Sediment Texture and color Grain size –Boulders to colloids Color –White or creamy – biological origin –Gray – high in silica –Red clay- iron oxide
Sediment classification by particle size Boulder>256 mm Cobble mm Pebble4 –64 mm Granule2-4 mm Sand0.062 –2mm Silt0.004 –0.062 mm Clay<0.004 mm
Types of sediment Well-sorted sediments –Particles of one size Poorly sorted sediments –A mixture of size
Sediment transport Rivers Glaciers Currents
Classification of Marine sediment by source Terrigenous Sediments Biogenous Sediments Hydrogenous Sediments Cosmogenous Sediments
Terrigenous (lithogenous) Sediments Originates on the continents –derived from igneous rocks Granite - the source of quartz and clay
Biogenous Sediments Made of siliceous and calcareous compounds –near continental margins
Hydrogenous Sediments Minerals that have precipitated directly from sea water Eg manganese nodules Phosphorite nodules
Cosmogenous Sediments Extraterrestrial origin microtektites.
Distribution of Marine Sediments Neritic sediments Pelagic sediments
Average thickness of marine sediments Continental shelves2.5 Km Continental slopes9 km Continental rises8 km Deep ocean floor0.6 km
Sediments of continental margins Terrigenous lithification
Sediment thickness of Deep- Ocean Basin Atlantic and Pacific abyssal plains oceanic ridges
Sediments of Deep Ocean Basin Turbidites Clays Oozes Hydrogenous Materials
Hydrogenous sediments Originate from chemical reaction Evaporites –Eg, calcium carbonate, –Calcium sulfate –Sodium chloride Oolite sand
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Paleoceanography The study of the Ocean’s past
The Economic Importance of Marine Sediments crude oil natural gas
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