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ARIPPA Technical Symposium August 2008 Neil Raskin, Senior Project Manager, Services Foster Wheeler North America Corp. Clinton, NJ Combustion/Cofiring.

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Presentation on theme: "ARIPPA Technical Symposium August 2008 Neil Raskin, Senior Project Manager, Services Foster Wheeler North America Corp. Clinton, NJ Combustion/Cofiring."— Presentation transcript:

1 ARIPPA Technical Symposium August 2008 Neil Raskin, Senior Project Manager, Services Foster Wheeler North America Corp. Clinton, NJ Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) Boilers

2 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers Why Combust/Cofire Biomass (Biofuel) Biofuel are the “Politically Correct” fuel to combust/cofire because they are considered “Sustainable”, “Renewable”, and “CO 2 neutral”. “Green Power” produced from Biofuel can be sold at a premium in many states. Cofiring Biofuel will reduce SO 2 and Metals emissions.

3 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers Biofuel categories: Sawmill wastes and by-products of lumber production Pulp and paper mill waste Agricultural waste Forest residue

4 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers Biofuel characteristics: High volatile (70 – 85 wt%) Low ignition temperature (~400 o F) Varying moisture (20 – 60 wt %) Low ash and sulfur Potential high chlorine (corrosion) and alkali (fouling) content.

5 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers Standard Design CFB Boiler Fuel Design Challenges Fuel Higher Heating Value FUEL RANK Peat Bark Multiple ChallengesSome ChallengesNo Challenge Various Types of Wood Demolition Wood Deinking Sludge Chip Board Plywoo d Bituminous Coals Brown Coals, Lignite Bio & Fiber Sludge Paper Petroleum Coke

6 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers Peat Agricultural Waste Rice Husks Oat Hulls Straw Bagasse Tree Prunings Forest Clearing Vine Trimmings Nut Shells Pulp & Paper Industry Bark Sludge Recycled Wood Wood Waste Demolition Wood Furniture Making

7 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers The following design parameters are to be considered when combusting or cofiring Biofuel within a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler

8 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers Biofuel such as Animal Manure, Chicken Litter, and High Alkali Biofuel (Na values >9% by wgt ash), Agro Wastes, Short Rotation Wood, and Energy Crops are not recommended to be combusted alone in a CFB boiler. However, they can be cofired in small percentages when mixed with other “safe” fuels.

9 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers Property Range Moisture % Ash % wgt dry Fixed Carbon % wgt. dry Volatiles % wgt. dry Sulfur trace % wgt dry Chlorine trace % wgt dry HHV 6, ,000 Btu/lb Bulk Density 5 – 25, (avg. 18 lbs/ft3)

10 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers SO 2 : Generally not a concern. For the same emission level limestone usage will be reduced when cofiring Biofuel with coal. NOx: High moisture content lowers combustion temperatures resulting in less thermal NOx being produced. High volatile content causes the Biofuel to combust in the upper furnace, where the volatiles react with already generated NOx reducing it to N 2.

11 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers CO: Dry fine Biofuel combust in the upper furnace and cyclone, resulting in higher CO emissions. Larger wet Biofuel, such as wood chips combust in the lower furnace resulting in lower CO emissions. VOC: Expected to as be low as other fuels. Methane: Potentially higher than other fuels due to larger portion of the Biofuel’s volatile content is given off as methane.

12 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers Biofuel sizing is determined by the requirements for stable Biofuel feed system operation and to prevent after burning. The following is the recommended particle feed size: 98% < ~4.00” 50% < ~0.60” 80% > ~0.12” Non-Biofuel sizing is determined by fuel volatility, ash content, and friability.

13 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers Biofuel to be cofired should be received, prepared, stored, and metered (weighed) separately from the CFB boiler’s main fuel. However, Biofuel can be fed to the boiler by adding it to the boiler’s main fuel feed system after each fuel is individually weighed. The above recommendations are based upon the following:

14 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers Independent Biofuel storage prevents a reduction in the boiler’s main fuel silo’s storage capacity due to Biofuel’s lower bulk density. Independent coal and Biofuel feed control allows for: Constant total heat input into the boiler to prevent load swings due to varying Biofuel heating value Accurate measurement of the Biofuel for correlating heat input to accurately calculate the “Green Power” produced

15 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers Typical front wall Biofuel feed system

16 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers Typical rear wall (loopseal) Biofuel feed system Non-Pressured Feeder Rotary feeder Expansion joint Isolation Valve Air bustle Feed Chute Loopseal connection

17 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers Typical rear wall – duel Biofuel feed system to loopseal including surge silo

18 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers Primary vs. secondary air split is 60%/40% for coal and 40%/60% for Biofuel. Therefore cofiring Biofuel with coal could affect the capacity of the primary and secondary air fans. Biofuel have a higher moisture content than most fuels resulting in an increase in the total volumetric combustion gas flow which will affect ID fan and increasing the potential for erosion due to increased flue gas velocities.

19 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers Furnace and heat recovery area (HRA or back pass) velocities may increase when cofiring Biofuel with coal due to the increased volume of the flue gas. Therefore, due to the higher potential for both corrosion and erosion Biofuel flue gas velocities within the HRA are limited to ft/sec as compared to coal which is generally higher.

20 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers Biofuel bottom and fly ash unburned Carbon (UBC) will be less than coal. Thus cofiring Biofuel should reduce total UBC in the ash. Ash re-circulation is not recommended when firing Biofuel since this would tend to enrich the alkali within the bed material thus increasing the potential for fouling.

21 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers The majority of Biofuel ash will be fly ash unless there is a substantial amount of dirt and rock present, which adds to the bottom ash. Bottom/fly ash sold to produce concrete could be curtailed due to the present standard for concrete that limits the ash source to coal. This standard is presently being reviewed to allow for the potential use of non-coal based ash.

22 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers Bed inventory makeup will depend on the ash content of the fuel cofired with the Biofuel. Additional bed make-up materials are Natural Sand, Limestone, or PC Ash. Natural Sand recommended size distribution: 100%< 600 microns 75%< 250 microns 50%< 180 microns 25%< 130 microns

23 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers Natural sand is preferred to quartz sand for bed inventory make-up because it contains less free quartz which tends to react with alkali to form low melting compounds. Additionally quartz sand has a tendency to fracture at high temperatures and during thermal cycles resulting in higher bed inventory make-up rates. Lastly, natural sand is chemically and structurally more stable at high temperatures.

24 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers Typical Sand Feed from Pneumatic Truck

25 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers Chlorides within Biofuel and limestone (naturally or from transportation) combined with sulfur can promote corrosion of pressure and non-pressure part metal surfaces, producing a combined “corrosion and erosion” affect. The amount of total chlorine (wgt%, dry) within the fuel and limestone should be limited to <0.10%. Total chlorine >3.0% (wgt%, dry) are considered to be a high corrosion potential and should be avoided.

26 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers Biofuels containing sodium and potassium can cause fouling. Potential for fouling is based on Total Alkali Note 1 in the Total Ash Note 2 : Low Medium High 9.0 Note 1: Total Alkali (% by wgt) = Na (% by wgt) + K/1.7 (% by wgt) Note 2: Total ash (% by wgt) = fuel ash + limestone enerts + calcination and sulfation reaction products + make-up bed material + additives

27 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers Silica (SiO2) in the form of dirt, rocks, etc. from Biofuel harvested from fields or forests can increase the potential for fouling when combined with the alkali found in the Biofuel.

28 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers Fouling can be mitigated by adding basic compounds, such as CaO, MgO and Al 2 O 3. These compounds tend to make the bed material less sensitive to the formation of low melting alkali compounds, thus reducing fouling related problems.

29 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers Refractory issues: corrosion from Biofuel alkali can weaken refractory binders resulting in erosion of the refractory. Low cement refractory that are manufactured with bauxite alumina in place of mulite alumina are less susceptible to alkali. Additionally, man-made alumina have proven to be even more corrosion – erosion resistant.

30 ARIPPA Technical Symposium – August 2008 Combustion/Cofiring of Biomass within CFB Boilers Questions?


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