OSHA’s New National Emphasis Program: Crystalline Silica
Why Does OSHA Have a New National Emphasis Program? Silica-related illnesses and fatalities continue to occur The NEP is a written compliance directive incorporating updated information and policies and procedures adopted since 1996
Why a New NEP? (cont’d) Expands 1996 SEP memorandum Provides updated research results on silica exposure hazards Details inspection procedures, including follow-up inspections where overexposure found Addresses targeting of worksites and provides updated NAICS codes for industries with worker exposure to crystalline silica Explains calculation of PELS in General Industry, Construction, and Maritime Establishes program evaluation procedures Provides for Regional and Area Office outreach programs
What Is Crystalline Silica? SiO 2 –silicon dioxide Also known as “free silica” Significantly more hazardous than amorphous silica 3 mineralogical forms –Quartz—most common –Cristobalite –Tridymite
What Are the Health Effects of Crystalline Silica? Silicosis (pulmonary fibrosis) –Chronic, accelerated, acute –A continuing problem Lung cancer Tuberculosis Chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder Other –Immunologic disorders and autoimmune diseases –Renal disease –Stomach and other cancers
What Are the Symptoms and Signs of Chronic Silicosis? NOTE: There may be no symptoms in the early stages. As the disease progresses –Cough −Breathlessness −Weakness Significant X-ray changes after 15-20 years of exposure
Symptoms of Related Illnesses (such as Tuberculosis) Fever Weight loss Night sweats Chest pains Respiratory failure These symptoms can become worse over time, leading to death.
Where Are There Workplace Exposures to Crystalline Silica? Solid dust particles generated from silica-containing materials by –Handling –Grinding –Blasting –Drilling –Crushing High historical exposures –Sandblasting –Mining (regulated by MSHA) –Tunneling –Granite cutting –Sand-casting foundry operations
How Will Employees Know They May Exposed? Identify factors that indicate probable use of silica Check product labels Check the Material Safety Data Sheets
Abrasives Coal Dust Concrete Dirt Filter Aids Graphite, natural Mica Mineral Products Paints Pavement Perlite Plant Materials Plastic Fillers Polishing Compounds Portland Cement Sands Silicates Slag Soapstone Soil Brickmason/stonemaso n Construction laborer Crane and tower operator Crushing and grinding machine operator Furnace, kiln, non-food oven operator Grinding, abrading, buffing, and polishing machine operator Hand molder/shaper (not jeweler) Heavy-equipment mechanic Janitor or cleaner Machinist Metals/plastics machine operator Molding and casting machine operator Mining machine operator Miscellaneous material moving equipment operator Millwright Operating engineer Painter who sandblasts (High Risk) Production supervisor Rock driller (High Risk) Roof bolter (High Risk) Sandblaster (High Risk) Steelworker Welder/cutter See how the chance of death is increased according to occupation Abrasive blasting Asphalt pavement manufacturing Blast furnaces Cement manufacturing Ceramics, clay, and pottery Concrete mixing Concrete tunneling Construction (mainly cement, concrete work) Demolition Electronics industry Foundry industry: grinding, molding, shakeout, core room (High Risk) Hand molding, casting, and forming Jack hammer operations Manufacturing abrasives, paints, soaps, and glass Mining Repair or replacement of linings of rotary kilns and cupola furnaces Rolling and finishing mills Sandblasting (High Risk) Setting, laying, and repairing railroad track Steelwork Stone, brick, and concrete block cutting, blasting, chipping, grinding, and sawing Tunneling operations Materials Are any of these involved? Occupations Are you one of these? Industry Do you work in any of these? If you can answer YES to any of these, then it is likely that Silica is used at your work and that it is airborne. Probable Use of Silica Identify factors that indicate probable use of crystalline silica Source: OSHA’s Silica eTool Check to see whether you (a) Work in an industry in the left column; (b) Are in an occupation in the middle column; or (c) Work with materials listed in the right column
And One You May Not Usually Think of—Dental Laboratories! Source: What Dental Technicians Need to Know About Silicosis. NJDHSS.
Labels A product that contains ≥ 0.1% crystalline silica (by weight or volume) must say so The machines used in the operations may also have warning signs indicating that silica is being used Manufacturer’s responsibility: attach a label to all products that contain ≥ 0.1% crystalline silica Employer’s responsibility: ensure that the label is not removed or defaced
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Contain data for materials or products containing hazardous chemicals If a material or product contains ≥ 0.1% crystalline silica, there must be a MSDS Manufacturers and importers: obtain or develop a MSDS for each hazardous chemical they produce or import Employers: ensure access to MSDSs for all hazardous chemicals at the workplace
The National Emphasis Program Applies to General Industry and Construction worksites Goals –Eliminate employee overexposure –Control health hazards associated with overexposure Features –OSHA procedures for inspections –2 percent of inspections –Mandatory follow-up inspections if possible where overexposures occurred
What Will OSHA Check for on an Inspection? Employee exposure monitoring, including collection of bulk samples Engineering and work practicecontrols Respiratory protection Hazard communication
What is the OSHA PEL for General Industry? Quartz (respirable dust): 10 mg/m3 % respirable quartz + 2 Cristobalite and Tridymite: use ½ of the value calculated from the formula for quartz
What is the OSHA PEL for Construction? Quartz (respirable dust): 250 mppcf % silica + 5 OSHA-adopted conversion factor: 1 mppcf = 0.1 mg/m 3 respirable dust
Crystalline Silica PELs: “Bottom Line” Message Whether you work in General Industry or in Construction: The more crystalline silica there is in the dust, the less of the dust you should breath
What Will OSHA Check for on an Inspection? (cont’d) Symptoms of silicosis in workplace Housekeeping and hygiene Employee exposure and medical records Abrasive blasting
Scope of Inspection Inspection may be expanded beyond silica-related activities if other hazards or violations are observed.
Follow-up and Evaluation Mandatory follow-up inspections where citations for overexposure are issued If follow-up not possible (operation concluded), written documentation of abatement efforts from employers
Follow-up and Evaluation (cont’d) Where exposures cannot be reduced below the PEL −engineering and administrative controls must be used to reduce exposures as low as possible −respiratory protection must be used to supplement other controls Abatement verification data used by Office of Statistics
What Are Some Possible Ways to Reduce Exposure? Substitute materials that have no crystalline silica Locate employees as far as possible from dust-generation source Isolate employees OR the source –Control rooms –Enclosures –Barriers
Moving Employees Farther from Point of Exposure Source: NIOSH Publication No. 1999-113: Control of Drywall Sanding Dust Exposures
What Are Some Possible Ways to Reduce Exposure? (cont’d) Use local exhaust ventilation (LEV systems) Use tools with dust-collecting systems
Example of a Combination of Controls Source: What Dental Technicians Need to Know About Silicosis. NJDHSS.
What Are Some Possible Ways to Reduce Exposure? (cont’d) Use wet methods –Cutting –Chipping –Drilling –Sawing –Grinding Clean surfaces with HEPA vacuums or wet sweeping—no compressed air!
Controls—Wet Methods Source: Dry Cutting and Grinding is RISKY BUSINESS. NJDHSS.
What Are Some Possible Ways to Reduce Exposure? (cont’d) And if other methods are not sufficient— Use Proper Respiratory Protection
Example of a Combination of Controls Source: NIOSH Publication No. 2002-105: Silicosis in Sandblasters: A Case Study for Use in U.S. High Schools
What Can Workers Do to Protect Themselves and Their Families? Become informed Reduce their exposure to dust Use respirators when needed Participate in medical screening Practice good personal hygiene at the workplace It is the employer’s responsibility to provide a safe workplace It is your responsibility to use any controls provided Source: CPWR.
What Information Does OSHA Have on the Internet? NEP for crystalline silica: –Go to www.osha.govwww.osha.gov –Select Directives –Select 2008 –Look under January (1/24/08) Other information on crystalline silica: –Go to www.osha.govwww.osha.gov –Select “S” from the alphabetical topic index –Select “Silica, Crystalline”
Other Internet Information National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) website: –www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/silicawww.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/silica
Audience Suggestions? Control methods for crystalline silica on your job or in your workplace? Suggestions for “getting the word out”? Other groups that might be interested in reducing exposure to crystalline silica?
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