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Earth Science, 6e Edward J. Tarbuck & Frederick K. Lutgens.

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Presentation on theme: "Earth Science, 6e Edward J. Tarbuck & Frederick K. Lutgens."— Presentation transcript:

1 Earth Science, 6e Edward J. Tarbuck & Frederick K. Lutgens

2 Minerals, What for?  Do we need Minerals?  Name a few things made of minerals: Example: Glass is made from…

3 Minerals: the building blocks of rocks  Definition of a mineral Natural Inorganic Solid Possess an orderly internal structure of atoms Have a definite chemical composition  Mineraloid - lacks an orderly internal structure

4 Minerals  Physical properties of minerals Crystal form Luster Color Streak Hardness versus Tenacity Cleavage (breaks evenly)

5 The mineral quartz often exhibits good crystal form

6 Pyrite (fool’s gold) displays metallic luster

7 Color, not reliable…


9 Three examples of perfect cleavage – fluorite, halite, and calcite

10 Conchoidal fracture

11 Minerals  Physical properties of minerals Fracture (breaks unevenly) Specific gravity (mineral heftiness) Other properties Taste Smell

12 Minerals  Physical properties of minerals Other properties Feel Magnetism Double Refraction Reaction to hydrochloric acid

13 Minerals  A few dozen minerals are called the rock- forming minerals (see page 35)  The eight elements that compose most rock- forming minerals are (see page 34)


15 Minerals  Silicates Minerals (see page 35) Most common mineral group (90% of minerals) Contain the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron Four oxygen atoms surrounding a much smaller silicon atom Combines with other atoms to form the various silicate structures

16 The silicate (SiO 4 ) -4 molecule

17 Common silicate minerals

18 Potassium feldspar

19 Minerals  Nonsilicate Minerals ( see page 36) Major groups Oxides Sulfides Sulfates Carbonates “Native” elements

20 Native Copper

21 Some common non-silicate minerals

22 An underground halite (salt) mine

23 The Bingham copper mine in Utah

24 End of Chapter 1

25 PRS Test on Minerals Please do not talk to your neighbor during the test. Thank you.

26 1- This silicate (SiO 4 ) -4 molecule has a: 1 silicon 4 oxygen; or b:1 oxygen 4 silicon

27 2 - Does this quartz mineral show a: Cleavage faces or b: Crystal form ?

28 3 - What is the luster displayed by this mineral ? a: metallic; b: non metallic

29 4 - Do these minerals have a: perfect cleavage; b: absence of cleavage

30 5 - Does this mineral show a: good cleavage or b: conchoidal fracture?

31 6 - What mineral is this? a: Calcite or b: Potassium Feldspar

32 7 - What are the two minerals your fingernail can scratch? a.Calcite and Gypsum b.Gypsum and Talc c.Talc and Calcite

33 8 - The most reliable way to identify a carbonate mineral is by a.Luster b.Hardness c.Streak d.Reaction to Hydrochloric Acid e.None of these

34 9 - One of these minerals is a Sulfide a.Calcite (CaCO3) b.Quartz (SiO2) c.Gypsum (CaSO4.H2O) d.Pyrite (FeS2) e.None of the above

35 10 - Which term does not define a mineral? a.Natural b.Solid c.Organic d.Definite crystalline structure e.Definite Chemical Composition

36 11 - Which mineral has double refraction, hardness =3, and reacts with hydrochloric acid? a.Pyrite b.Galena c.Quartz d.Calcite e.None of these


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