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1 Structures and Properties of Substances 12.1Classification of Substances According to Structures 12.2Classification of Substances According to the Nature.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Structures and Properties of Substances 12.1Classification of Substances According to Structures 12.2Classification of Substances According to the Nature."— Presentation transcript:

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2 1 Structures and Properties of Substances 12.1Classification of Substances According to Structures 12.2Classification of Substances According to the Nature of Bonding 12

3 2 Classification of Substances According to Structures 12.1

4 3 Some pre-knowledge solid Particles (may be molecules, ions or metallic atoms) forces of attraction between particles weaken liquidgas     forces of attraction between particles broken 12.1 Classification of substances according to structures (SB p.302)

5 4 Molecular structures 12.1 Classification of substances according to structures (SB p.302) Consist of discrete molecules Atoms in the molecules are held by strong covalent bonds Molecules are held together by weak intermolecular forces 2 types: simple molecular structures, macromolecular structures

6 Classification of substances according to structures (SB p.302) Substances with simple molecular structures may be solids, liquids or gases at room conditions Substances with macromolecular structures are always solids at room conditions

7 Classification of substances according to structures (SB p.302) Giant structures All the atoms or ions are linked by strong bonding Classified into 3 types: giant covalent, giant ionic and giant metallic structures

8 Classification of substances according to structures (SB p.302) Substances with giant covalent (graphite), giant ionic (sodium chloride) and giant metallic (copper) structures

9 Classification of substances according to structures (SB p.303) Classification of substances according to their structures Check Point 12-1 Check Point 12-1

10 9 Classification of Substances According to the Nature of Bonding 12.2

11 10 Simple molecular substances Examples forces of attraction between particles weaken (by raising the temp.) forces of attraction between particles broken (by further raising the temp.) solid iodine (at room temp.) liquid iodine Gaseous iodine 12.2 Classification of substances according to the nature of bonding (SB p.304)

12 11 Properties of simple molecular substances 1.Low melting points and boiling points 2.Soft and easily distorted 3.Non-conductors of electricity 4.Usually insoluble in polar solvents but soluble in non-polar solvents 12.2 Classification of substances according to the nature of bonding (SB p.304) Like dissolves like

13 12 Like dissolves like Non-polar solvents dissolve non-polar substances best E.g. hexane dissolves I 2 Polar solvents dissolve polar substances best. E.g. water dissolves NH 3 / SO 2 / HCl / NaCl

14 13 Giant covalent substances 12.2 Classification of substances according to the nature of bonding (SB p.305) Non-metallic atoms are joined together by strong covalent bonds No discrete molecules are present Examples: diamond, graphite, quartz

15 14 Giant covalent substances 12.2 Classification of substances according to the nature of bonding (SB p.305) The giant covalent structure of diamond The giant covalent structure of quartz

16 15 Properties of giant covalent substances 1.High melting points and boiling points 2.Hard and rigid 3.Poor conductors of heat and electricity 4.Insoluble in any solvents 12.2 Classification of substances according to the nature of bonding (SB p.306)

17 16 Unique properties of graphite 12.2 Classification of substances according to the nature of bonding (SB p.306) The giant covalent structure of graphite (a layered structure)

18 17 Unique properties of graphite 12.2 Classification of substances according to the nature of bonding (SB p.306) Soft and can act as a lubricating agent  layers of carbon atoms are held together by weak van der Waals’ forces Good conductor of electricity  unhybridized  electrons of carbon atoms are delocalized within the layers

19 18 Macromolecules Long chains of molecules containing a very large number of atoms Examples: plastics, proteins, some carbohydrates Higher m.p./b.p. than simple molecules due to much stronger van der Waals’ forces 12.2 Classification of substances according to the nature of bonding (SB p.306)

20 Classification of substances according to the nature of bonding (SB p.307) Ionic substances Cations and anions are held together by ionic bonds which are strong non-directional electrostatic attraction Oppositely charged ions are closely packed together to give a 3-dimensional giant lattice

21 20 Properties of ionic substances 1.High melting and boiling points 2.Hard but brittle 12.2 Classification of substances according to the nature of bonding (SB p.307) The giant ionic structure fractures when a stress is applied

22 21 Properties of ionic substances 12.2 Classification of substances according to the nature of bonding (SB p.307) 3.Good conductors of electricity in molten or aqueous state 4.Soluble in polar solvents but insoluble in non-polar solvents Like dissolves like

23 Classification of substances according to the nature of bonding (SB p.307) The formation of aqueous sodium chloride solution, in which the ions are attracted and surrounded by water molecules

24 Classification of substances according to the nature of bonding (SB p.308) Metallic substances Consist of a regular lattice of metallic cations and a “sea” of delocalized electrons The lattice is held by strong electrostatic attraction between the delocalized electrons and metallic cations known as metallic bonds

25 24 Properties of metallic substances 1.High melting and boiling points 2.Good conductors of heat and electricity 3.High density 12.2 Classification of substances according to the nature of bonding (SB p.308)

26 25 Properties of metallic substances 12.2 Classification of substances according to the nature of bonding (SB p.308) 4.Malleable and ductile Illustration of the malleability and ductility of a metal

27 26 Example 12-2 Example 12-2 Check Point 12-2 Check Point Classification of substances according to the nature of bonding (SB p.309)

28 27 The END

29 Classification of substances according to structures (SB p.303) Classify the following elements or compounds into different types of molecular or giant structures: Lithium fluoride Argon Uranium Polyester Glucose (a)Giant ionic structure (b)Simple molecular structure (c)Giant metallic structure (d)Macromolecular structure (e)Simple molecular structure Back Answer

30 Classification of substances according to the nature of bonding (SB p.305) Explain the ability of buckminsterfullerence to partially conduct electricity in relation to its structure. Back It is because each carbon atom in buckminsterfullerene forms three  bonds only and delocalized  electrons are present which conduct electricity. Answer

31 Classification of substances according to the nature of bonding (SB p.306) Unlike diamond and graphite, fullerenes can be dissolved in various solvents. Why? Diamond and graphite have giant covalent structure. They do not dissolve in any solvents because of the presence of strong covalent bonds between all carbon atoms. However, fullerenes have simple molecular structure. Only weak van der Waals’ forces have to be overcome in the process of dissolution. Answer Back

32 Classification of substances according to the nature of bonding (SB p.309) What are the types of attractive forces present in each of the following substances? Show how the physical properties are related to their structure and bonding. (a) Dry ice (b) Sodium chloride Answer

33 Classification of substances according to the nature of bonding (SB p.309) (a)In dry ice, the atoms are joined together within the molecules by strong covalent bonds while only weak van der Waals’ forces exist between molecules. The melting and boiling points of dry ice are low since only weak van der Waals’ forces are needed to be overcome during the processes of melting and boiling. Besides, dry ice consists of simple molecules with no mobile electrons. Thus, it does not conduct electricity. Carbon dioxide is only slightly soluble in water because it is non-polar in nature.

34 Classification of substances according to the nature of bonding (SB p.309) (b)Strong ionic bonding exists between oppositely charged ions throughout the whole lattice of a sodium chloride crystal. Thus, the melting and boiling points of sodium chloride are very high. Moreover, sodium chloride is hard since the ions are closely packed and strong ionic bonds hold the ions together. It is soluble in water due to the solvation of ions (i.e. the attraction between the ions and water molecules which are polar) and is insoluble in non-polar solvents. Sodium chloride conducts electricity in the molten or aqueous state due to the presence of mobile ions in these states. Back

35 Classification of substances according to the nature of bonding (SB p.309) (a)Explain the following characteristic properties of metals in terms of their structure and bonding. (i) Malleable (ii) High density (iii) High melting point Answer

36 Classification of substances according to the nature of bonding (SB p.309) (a)(i) When stress is applied on a piece of metal, one plane of metal ions slides over another. The delocalized electrons take up new positions and the metallic bonds can be maintained. Therefore, metals are malleable. (ii) Metals have high densities as metal ions are closely packed together in the metallic lattice. (iii) Metals have high densities as metal ions are held tightly in the giant lattice. A large amount of energy is required to overcome the strong metallic bonds between the cationic lattice and the delocalized electrons.

37 Classification of substances according to the nature of bonding (SB p.309) (b)Describe briefly how the structures of the following substances are related to their physical properties. (i) Quartz (ii) Magnesium Answer

38 Classification of substances according to the nature of bonding (SB p.309) (b) (i) Quartz is a substance with a giant covalent structure. In the quartz lattice, each silicon atom is bonded tetrahedrally to four neighbouring oxygen atoms whereas each oxygen atom is bonded to two neighbouring silicon atoms. This gives rise to a tetrahedral diamond-like structure. As the atoms are held together by strong covalent bonds, a large amount of energy is required to overcome the strong covalent bonds in the processes of melting and boiling. Thus, quartz has high melting and boiling points. Besides, quartz is hard and rigid as the atoms are fixed in their positions by strong covalent bonds. Since there are no mobile electrons, quartz is a poor conductor of heat and electricity. Quartz is insoluble in both polar and non-polar solvents

39 Classification of substances according to the nature of bonding (SB p.309) (b) (ii) Magnesium is a substance with a giant metallic structure. It has high melting and boiling points as the magnesium ions are held tightly in the giant lattice. A large amount of energy is required to overcome the strong metallic bonds between the cationic lattice and the delocalized electrons. Due to the presence of mobile electrons, magnesium is a good conductor of heat and electricity. It also has a high density as the magnesium ions are closely packed together in the metallic lattice. Moreover, magnesium is malleable and ductile. It is because when stress is applied, one plane of metal ions will slide over another, and the delocalized electrons will take up new positions. As a result, the metallic bonds can be maintained. Back


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