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Product Design Chapter 16 & 17, Birchall Article Terry A. Ring CH EN 4253.

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Presentation on theme: "Product Design Chapter 16 & 17, Birchall Article Terry A. Ring CH EN 4253."— Presentation transcript:

1 Product Design Chapter 16 & 17, Birchall Article Terry A. Ring CH EN 4253

2 Chapter 16 Innovation Maps Critical Inventions Technology Protection Strategies Chapter 17 Project Charter Stage Gate Product Development Process

3 Technology Map Materials Technology Process/Manufacturing Technology Technical Value Proposition Product Technology Product types Customer Value Proposition

4 Lighting Allow work/reading after dark Mimic Sun’s Radiation (Black Body Radiator) –T sun =5778 K Sensitivity of human eye –Day Light –Low Light Low Light

5 Lighting Color Temp. Candles1,850 K Gas Mantle Lamp Th, Ce oxide emissions Incandescent Light Bulb 2,700–3,300 K Fluorescent Lighting3,500-5,500 K Halogen Light Bulb 2800° K to 3400°K LED (light emitting diode) Phosphor-based -LED

6 Intensity vs Wavelength 10% light, 90% Heat 30 % light, 70 % Heat

7 Incandescent Bulbs Light output α (Voltage)^3.4 Power Consumption α (Voltage)^1.6 Lifetime α (Voltage)^ -16 Color Temperature α (Voltage)^0.42

8 Incandescent Bulb Glass Bulb filled with –Vacuum –Gas Non-reactive gas Inert Gas FilamentTmp –Platinum2045 K –Molybdenum2890 K –Tungsten3860 K –Carbon4100 K –Osmium3300 K Bulb Blackening –Physical Vapor Deposition Evaporation -> Condensation

9 Innovation Map - Incandescent

10 Halogen Lamp Quartz Bulb Tungsten Filament High Pressure (8atm) Gas –Containing halogen Cl, Br, I Not F BB Temperature = 3400K Halogen Cycle keeps surface clean

11 Innovation Map – Halogen Bulb

12 LED’s

13 LED Color of Light Determined by Band gap of Semiconductor E gap = hc/λ

14 Colors

15 White LED Mix Three Primary Colors to get white UV-LED with Phosphors Sun Light

16 Critical Developments Incandescent Lamp –Low Temp Glass –Metal Seals through Glass –Vacuum Tube –Inert Gas Filling –Long Lasting Filament Halogen Lamp –Quartz glass –Metal Seals through Quartz –Halogen gases –High Pressure filling –Long Lasting Filament –Alloying Tungsten Allowing extrusion Allowing winding

17 Lighting Light Efficiency, Bulb Life Candles0.17 lm/W, 10 h Incandescent Light Bulb15 lm/W, 1-2 kh Fluorescent Lighting100 lm/W,10 kh Halogen Light Bulb30 lm/W,10 kh LED (light emitting diode)18-22 lm/W Phosphor-based –LED90 lm/W, 50 kh in R&D150-208 lm/W

18 Technology Protection Strategies License Technology Trade Secret –Coke mixture Protection via Market Barriers Patent –20 yr monopoly –technology is public information –Patent Types –Composition patent –Mfg. Process patent –Application (Use) patent

19 Steps to develop the Halogen Bulb Concept Stage –Opportunity assessment Technological challenges - lifetime Market size – same as incandescent bulb - $75 B/y world wide Competition analysis » Light efficiencyLifetimeMarket Penetration –Incandescent 15 lm/W, 1-2 kh80% –Fluorescent 100 lm/W,10 kh20% –Fit into Incandescent fixtures – screw in bulbs Value chain analysis –Company – Cost to manufacture –Customer – Price/Convenience/Energy Use What the customer wants. - Voice of the Market – >2kh lifetime (30%), no cost premium (20%), fits various fixtures (10%), various color temperatures (10%), Energy Efficiency (30%) –Weighting factors from market research

20 Project Charter for Halogen Bulb

21 Design Team Multidisciplinary Team –Scientists & Engineers –Development Engineers –Senior Manufacturing engineering Those that make incandescent bulbs –Supply Chain Specialists –Customer-service Personnel Those that dealt with incandescent bulbs –Marketing Personnel –Sales Personnel –Health and safety specialists –Environmental specialists –Regulatory affairs specialists –Patent Lawyers

22 Stage Gate Development Assemble Team Concept Stage –Opportunity assessment Market Analysis Competitive Analysis Technological Challenge –Customer Requirements –Technical Requirements –Determine Critical-to-Quality Variables

23 Stage Gate Development Feasibility Stage –Technical Feasibility –Customer Verification Willingness to buy. –Market Assessment –Competitive Analysis –Product Life-Cycle Management Prototype testing Disposal issues Development Stage Manufacturing Stage Product Introduction Stage

24 Technical Requirements

25 Stage Gate Development Technical Development Stage –Compare to Reference Product Concept On All C-t-Q technical requirements Pugh Matrix

26 High Temperature/Quartz

27 Spherical v Cylindrical Pugh Matrix

28 Stage Gate Development Gate Reviews at 3 month intervals –Business Opportunity Assessment Market size (15 million units/yr, 6.9% growth/y) Product Pricing –Technical Feasibility Assessment Competition – Fluorescent Bulbs – Superior Concept Probability of Technical Success IP Assessment –Manufacturing Capability Assessment Cost of new manufacturing capability –Product Life-cycle Assessment –Health, Safety and Regulatory Issues? –Recommendations

29 Product Innovation Equation Innovation = insight + ideas + impact Companies are increasingly making innovation part of their culture and corporate strategy. Ideas need SUN behavior –Suspend judgment, Understand the idea, Nurture it

30 After a production process is running Program of quality control and constant product improvement Six Sigma ISO-9000

31 Cost of Defects Six-Sigma –No. of defects per million 3.4/million (6 sigma) 1,350/million (3 sigma) 308,770/million (1 sigma) Costs –Single product –Assembled product Failure per part Total Failure of Assembly –Importance of Failure »Shampoo »Car »Spaceship Costs –Lost production cost to produce Rework cost –Lost Sale Ship back cost Loss of Customer –Failure in Service Damage to property Personal Injury Lost of Life

32 6 sigma design Define Project (Gantt Chart) –Steps –Time needed Allocate Resources Identify Product Requirements Select Product Concept Develop Product Design –Test Competing Designs –Plan Product Manufacture Quality Assurance Estimate process Variance – determine sigma Implement Design –Pilot Scale Verify Manufacturability Verify Quality Verify Profitability –Full Scale

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