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Unit 9 Rocks and Minerals
Topic: Minerals Key terms: Matter Elements Atoms Mineral
Mineral Uses Quartz
How many different minerals are there? 4,000 known minerals, according to the International Mineralogical Association International Mineralogical Association International Mineralogical Association
Elements ---- ---- ----
Atoms mmmmade of three particles PPPProtons=Positive(+) NNNNeutrons=Neutral(0) EEEElectrons=Negative(-)
Take out ESRT pg 1
Atoms make up Elements… Elements make up MINERALS!!!
What is a mineral? 1)Solid 2)Inorganic: not, or never was, living
3) Definite chemical composition Elements that make up the mineral Example: Mineral Halite (aka Salt) Composition: Sodium (Na) & Chlorine (Cl) Chemical Formula: NaCl
4) Crystalline structure The pattern of molecules repeated throughout the mineral – gives a mineral it’s properties! gives a mineral it’s properties!
5) Naturally Occurring
Silicon Tetrahedron - -
Review: What is a mineral? ---- ---- ---- ---- ----
Final Question: Can water, H 2 O, ever be considered a mineral? If so, how?
Topic: Identifying Minerals Key Term: Color Streak Hardness Luster Cleavage Fracture
Look at the last page of ESRT to find the minerals you need to know.
On the mineral chart Elements that make up the minerals
Tests for Identifying Minerals
Test 1: Color Test
*Color is not the best property to use when identifying a mineral. Why? 1) - 2) -
Test 2: Luster Luster -
Metallic - Non-metallic -
Luster Metallic dullglassypearly Non-Metallic All minerals
Luster Examples of Metallic Luster Pyrite, Galena
Luster Examples of Non- Metallic Luster (Dull) Earthy Corundum Glassy Quartz Pearly Opal
Find Hematite on mineral chart What is unique about hematite’s luster? Either
Test 3: Streak Test The streak - We use a streak plate
Where is streak on the chart? Look under Distinguishing characteristics to find streak
Pyrite is a brassy yellow, but in a powder is green-black
What is the color of hematite's streak?
Test 4: Hardness Test A mineral’s hardness is -
Hardness Test Mohs Scale of Hardness (1-10) 1.Talc6.Feldspar 2.Gypsum7.Quartz 3.Calcite8.Topaz 4.Fluorite9.Corundum 5.Apatite10.Diamond
Hardness Tools Fingernail 2.5 Penny 3.5 Iron Nail4.5 Glass Plate5.5 Steel File6.5 Streak Plate7
Hardness Test Talc = hardness of 1 Diamond = hardness of 10
Test 5: The way a mineral breaks 1) Cleavage -
Basal Cleavage: Mica
Cubic Cleavage: Halite
Rhombohedral Cleavage: Calcite
2) Fracture- - Rose Quartz
Splintery Fracture: Hornblende
Conchoidal Fracture: Obsidian
The check indicates if a mineral has fracture or cleavage
Watch out for Crystals Pyrite – looks like flat surfaces, however these crystals did not break, they grew into this shape.
Other identification tests
HCl Acid Calcite Acid Test for Calcite and Dolomite HCl— bubbles or fizzes
Smell Test for Sulfur Smells like rotten eggs
Magnetism for Magnetite
Taste Test for Halite
Optical Properties – Double refraction Mineral – Iceland Spar Calcite
Fluorescence: some minerals glow under ultraviolet light Franklinite from Franklin, New Jersey
Compare Diamond and Graphite Graphite Chemical Composition is Carbon (C) Diamond Can we use a diamond like we use graphite?
Arrangement of atoms
Aim: What are the properties of minerals? What is a mineral? A mineral is a: naturally occurring, inorganic, solid that has a crystal structure and a.
Aim: How can we identify minerals? Do Now: Define “inorganic” and give an example.
What is a Mineral?. To be considered a mineral, the object MUST possess all 5 of the following characteristics…
What are minerals? Think about the last time you walked on dirt.
Chapter 2: Properties of Minerals (2.3). Minerals: the building blocks of rocks Definition of a Mineral: naturally occurring inorganic solid characteristic.
Open Book - Answer questions Page 95: 1 and 2 Page 101: 2 and 3 Page 107: 30, 31.
Minerals. Minerals are inorganic, naturally occurring, homogenous, crystalline substances. –Crystal: A solid substance with atoms arranged in an orderly,
Minerals The Building Blocks of Rocks. Natural Beauties The Hope Diamond.
Properties of Minerals. 1. Color Easy to see but is least reliable property for ID –many different minerals are same color (calcite, quartz, dolomite)
Minerals. 4 requirements to be considered a mineral: 1. Naturally Occurring (not manmade)
Chapter 3 Minerals. Mineral Naturally occurring Inorganic Solid Definite structure – crystalline – solid in which the atoms are arranged in a repeating.
Minerals How do we use Earth Materials? Earth Materials: minerals, rocks, and mineral resources (95% to 100% of objects you use)
Minerals. What is a Mineral? Solid Solid Naturally Occurring Naturally Occurring Inorganic Inorganic Definite Crystal Structure Definite Crystal Structure.
Do Now / Vocab Mineral Naturally occurring, inorganic solid, with specific chemical composition and crystal structure Crystal Solid where atoms or.
From The Town Of Bedrock, Its a Place Right Out Of History.
MINERALS. What is a mineral? How do we differentiate a mineral from a piece of wood or a human? What is a rock?
EARTH MATERIALS Minerals, Rocks, and Mineral Resources.
What is a mineral? Naturally occurring Naturally occurring Solid substance Solid substance Orderly crystalline structure Orderly crystalline structure.
What is a Mineral? Naturally-formed solid substance with a crystal structure Pyromorphite.
Do Now: Is it made from living material (organic) or not (inorganic)? Plastic Milk Rock River Tree Air Salt Gold Skin Inorganic – non living Organic –
Minerals. What is a mineral? Naturally occurring inorganic (no living thing or remains) Solid Definite shape ( arranged in an orderly pattern) definite.
Minerals Characteristics of Minerals. Minerals are… Naturally occurring (not man made) Naturally occurring (not man made) Yes - Diamonds No – Cubic Zirconia.
Minerals. Do Now 1. What is an atom? 2. What is a mineral? Provide 2 examples.
I can identify the characteristics needed in order to be considered a mineral.
TOPIC 11 Minerals, Rocks and Mineral Resources **Rocks and minerals make up the Earth’s Surface.** Minerals = a naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline.
What is a Mineral pages the building blocks of rocks Minerals of Earth’s Crust.
What is a Mineral? A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystal structure and a definite chemical composition. Pyromorphite.
Minerals Mineral- A naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a definite chemical composition and crystal structure All minerals must: Occur naturally.
Lab # 2 The Study of Minerals Exercise #1 page 3 in text.
Minerals. What is a mineral? A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic crystalline solid with a repeating structure and constant chemical composition.
HOW TO IDENTIFY MINERALS What makes minerals different from each other? All minerals have certain traits or properties that make them different from each.
MINERALS ARE MADE UP OF SINGLE ELEMENTS OR COMPOUNDS ELEMENTS A SUBSTANCE THAT CANNOT BE BROKEN DOWN TO ANY SIMPLER SUBSTANCE EIGHT MOST COMMON ELEMENTS.
DO NOW Which rocks are made from sediment? Which rocks are made from sediment? Which rocks are made from magma? Which rocks are made from magma? Which.
Minerals. What is a mineral? 1) Naturally occurring & Inorganic - made by the earth of non-living material. Examples - quartz, sulfur, diamond, gold,
Properties of Minerals. What are minerals? There are over 3000 minerals. Roughly 100 common minerals A mineral is a naturally occurring, inorganic solid.
What is a Mineral 4 Naturally Occurring 4 Inorganic 4 Homogenous Solid 4 Definite Chemical Composition 4 Internal arrangement of atoms.
Minerals. Naturally occurring inorganic solids consisting of one or more chemical elements The atoms of these elements are arranged in a systematic internal.
DEFINITION OF MINERAL Naturally occurring, Inorganic Solid with a definable chemical composition and crystal structure Physical Properties Crystal Form.
Minerals. What is a mineral? Solid (hard) Natural (not man made) Inorganic (not living) Crystal structure (repeating pattern) Definite composition (made.
Minerals Properties & Special Properties. Earth’s Crust Made of Rock Rock is made of minerals (and other stuff) Minerals … –are naturally made. –are inorganic.
Mineral Properties & Identification. The story of minerals so far…. Minerals formed from elements that originated in exploding stars, made a nebula and.
MINERALS The building blocks of rocks….. The building blocks of rocks….. Did any of you use minerals before coming to school this morning??? I sure hope.
Rocks & Minerals. Physical properties See, hear, touch, taste, smell Density D = Mass ÷ Volume Hardness What it is made of.
Composition and Structure of Minerals. It occurs naturally It is a solid It has a definite chemical composition Its atoms are arranged in an orderly.
Atoms Atoms – basic building blocks for all earth materials; consist of 3 basic components: protons, neutrons, electrons Atoms – basic building blocks.
3-1 What is a mineral? 3-2 Identifying minerals? ( epsomite)
MINERALS. BIG Idea: Minerals are an integral part of daily life. –What exactly does ‘integral’ mean?
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