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1 Components of Optical Instruments, Cont… Lecture 6.

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1 1 Components of Optical Instruments, Cont… Lecture 6

2 22 Interference Filters These filters are sometimes called Fabry-Perot filters and are dependent on the concept of light interference. An interference filter is composed of a transparent dielectric, like calcium fluoride, sandwiched between two semitransparent metallic films. The array is further sandwiched between two glass plates to protect the filter. The thickness of the dielectric is carefully controlled, as it is this factor, which defines the resulting wavelength. The structure of the interference filter can be depicted as in the figure below:

3 33 Polychromatic Radiation Narrow Band of Radiation Glass Plate Metallic Film Dielectric Material

4 4 Incident polychromatic radiation hits the filter at right angles and the transmitted beam will have a very narrow bandwidth.  = 2t  i /n Where t and  i are the thickness and refractive index of the dielectric layer, respectively, while n is the radiation order.

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6 66 Interference Wedges It is clear from the discussion above that several interference filters are necessary to, for example, cover the visible range of the spectrum. This is not convenient as we would have to interchange filters according to wavelength of interest. To overcome this problem, a wedge machined dielectric was used. The dielectric in this case has different thicknesses and thus can transmit a wide range of wavelengths accordingly. The figure below is a schematic of a wedge interference filter:

7 77 Slit Wedge Movement Output Wavelengths Glass PlateDielectric Metallic Film Incident Radiation

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9 99 Prisms A prism is a wavelengths selector that depends on the dispersion ability of the incident radiation by the prism material. Dispersion, as discussed earlier, is the variation of refractive index with wavelength, or frequency. Since a beam of a polychromatic light is composed of several wavelengths, the dispersion of these wavelengths will be different when they are transmitted through the prism. One can see the following dispersion pattern for white light:

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11 11 Incident beam Red Orange Yellow Green Blue

12 12 Two common types of prisms can be identified: Cornu Prism: It is a 60 o prism which is made either from glass or quartz. When quartz is used, two 30 o prisms (one should be left handed and the other is right handed) are cemented together in order to get the 60 o prism. This is necessary since natural quartz is optically active and will rotate light either to right or left hand. Cementing the left and right handed prisms will correct for light rotation and will transmit the beam in a straight direction

13 13 Littrow Prism: A littrow prism is a 30 o prism which uses the same face for input and dispersed radiation. The beam is reflected at the face perpendicular to base, due to presence of a fixed mirror. A littrow prism would be used when a few optical components are required.

14 14 Mirror CornuLittrow

15 15 It should be always remembered that glass is nontransparent to UV radiation. Therefore, when radiation in the ultraviolet is to be dispersed, a quartz prism, rather than a glass, prism should be used. Quartz serves well in both UV and Vis. It should also be appreciated that the dispersion of a prism is nonlinear since it is dependent on wavelength.

16 16 Dispersion increases for shorter wavelength. Prisms are very good wavelength selectors in the range from may be nm but are bad ones for wavelength selection above 600 nm. The nonlinear dispersion of prisms also imposes problems on the instrumental designs which will be discussed later.

17 Wavelength (dispersion ability)

18 18 Gratings A grating is an optically flat polished surface that has dense parallel grooves. Two types of gratings are usually encountered, transmission and reflection (diffraction) gratings. Transmission gratings are seldom used in spectroscopic instruments and almost all gratings, which are used in conventional spectroscopic instruments, are of the reflection type. The groove density can be as low as 80 to several thousand (6000) lines/mm. Two common types of reflection gratings can be identified:

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22 22 1. Echelette Gratings: Typical echelette gratings contain from 300 to 2000 lines/mm but an average line density of about 1200 to 1400 lines/mm is most common. The echelette grating uses the long face for dispersion of radiation. It is the grating of choice for molecular spectroscopic instruments. As will be shortly explained, and in contrast to prisms, gratings usually have linear dispersion of radiation.

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24 24 2. Echelle Gratings: These have relatively coarse grooves (~ lines/mm). They use the short face for dispersion of radiation and are characterized by very high dispersion ability.

25 25 Dispersion by Gratings We can visualize what is going on when radiation hits the surface of a grating. Our discussion will be focused on echelette gratings but conclusions are fully applicable to all reflection gratings as well.

26 26 d 1 X i r 2' B A D C 2 1'

27 27 AB is the spacing between two consecutive blazes = d, mathematical manipulation gives: CB + BD = d sin i + d sin r n = d sin i + d sin r n = d(sin i +sin r) This relation suggests that there can be several wavelengths for each diffraction angle. For example:

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