Presentation on theme: "Julia Quartz - Popi Amigdalou SPUTNIK AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY."— Presentation transcript:
Julia Quartz - Popi Amigdalou SPUTNIK AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Julia Quartz - Popi Amigdalou OVERVIEW 1.Introduction 2.The ‘Space Race’ 3.Dickson’s View on the Shock 4. Actor-Network-Theory 5.Conclusion
Julia Quartz - Popi Amigdalou SPUTNIK’S COMPOUNDS: Aluminum 22-inch sphere with four spring-loaded whip antennae Silver colored Weight: 183 pounds Elliptical surrounding of the earth in 96 minutes Radio beacon giving signals in regular intervals (20 and 40 MHz)
Julia Quartz - Popi Amigdalou “THE COLD WAR” (E. Hobsbawm) Exit Point: 2nd World War and the existence of two world powers (USA, USSR) Fight of Ideologies (Communism vs. Capitalism) 1947 – 1949: step-by-step-partition of Germany 1949: Both Superpowers are in the possession of the atomic bomb 1962: Cuba Crisis: peak of atomic threat 1960ies: “peaceful coexistence” (N. Khrushchev) Final Point: Cuba Crisis or 1989
Julia Quartz - Popi Amigdalou SPUTNIK 1 4/10/1957 10:28 p.m SPUTNIK 2 03/11/1957 VANGUARD 1 06/12/1957 EXPLORER 31/01/1958 YURI GAGARIN 12/04/1961 APOLLO 11 20/07/1969 THE ‘SPACE RACE’
Julia Quartz - Popi Amigdalou DICKSON’S VIEW I U.S.A.: BEFORE THE SPUTNIK-SHOCK -SOCIAL CHANGES (First civil rights legislation since Reconstruction) -ECONOMICAL PROBLEMS (Stock prices went down, increase of unemployment) -DEEP BELIEF IN TECHNOLOGICAL AND MILITARY POWER
Julia Quartz - Popi Amigdalou DICKSON’S VIEW II THREAT OF SPUTNIK - American citizens felt a deep stroke on their superiority -Satellite as a “suitcase” for the atomic bomb BLAMES FOR THE SHOCK OF SPUTNIK - Not enough emphasis on Science and Maths -Materialistic society responsible for the loss of technological superiority
Julia Quartz - Popi Amigdalou DICKSON’S VIEW III RESULTS OF SPUTNIK- SHOCK -Innovative development -Development of microelectronics -Politics -Education -People’s life-Science fiction
Julia Quartz - Popi Amigdalou CRITIQUE Dickson’s linear and deterministic model is too narrow for the explanation of the technological and scientific development in the United States of America. U.S.A.SputnikEffects
Julia Quartz - Popi Amigdalou ACTOR-NETWORK-THEORY (Following M. Callon) “SEAMLESS WEB”: –Central actor (‘mastermind’): USA –Central aim: Scientific and technological development –Different interest groups are interacting (hidden influences) –Dynamic perspective –“It could have been otherwise” (Bijker 1995, p.184)
Julia Quartz - Popi Amigdalou ACTOR-NETWORK-THEORY SPUTNIK VANGUARD 1957 TECH.ENTHUSIASM COLD WAR U.S.A. ECONOMIC WELFARE ALREADY MADE SCIENSE
Julia Quartz - Popi Amigdalou CONCLUSION WHICH EFFECT DID THE SPUTNIK SHOCK HAVE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN U.S.A. ? –Driving force for the development of Science and Technology –“Hidden” influences –Not every scientific or technological development since 1957 can be linked with the sputnik shock. –Every development could have been otherwise
Julia Quartz - Popi Amigdalou THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION, HAVE A NICE VACATION …. AND JOIN OUR TRIP TO THE MOON TONIGHT! JULIA & POPI
Julia Quartz - Popi Amigdalou REFERENCES Bijker, Wiebe E. (1995). Of Bicycles, Bacelites, and Bulbs, MIT Press, chapter 4. Callon, Michel (1987). Society in the making: The study of technology as a tool for sociological analysis. In: Bijker, W.E., Hughes, T.P., Pinch T., The social Construction of technological systems. MIT Press, p. 83-103. Dickson, Paul (2001). Sputnik: The Shock of the Century, Walker and Co., chapter 1&5. Hobsbawm, Eric (1994). Age of extremes. The short twentieth Century. 1914-1991. Michael Joseph, chapter 9.
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