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1 Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators : the SAPHIR project Victor Malka COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia,

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Presentation on theme: "1 Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators : the SAPHIR project Victor Malka COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Feasability of protontherapy with lasers plasma accelerators : the SAPHIR project Victor Malka victor.malka@ensta.fr COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639 Palaiseau - FRANCE

2 2 E. Lefebvre, R. Nuter, M. Carrie CEA/DAM Ile-de-France, France A. Flacco, F. Sylla, A. Guemnie-Tafo Laboratoire d’Optique Appliquée, ENSTA-Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, 91761 Palaiseau, France In collaboration with : COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639 Thanks to Prof. A. Smith, S. Bulanov, C. Ma, H. Daido

3 3 COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639 Summary Part 1 : Short review of laser produced proton beam Part 2 : On the use of proton beam for oncology Part 3 : The SAPHIR project Part 4 :Conclusion and perspectives

4 4 Protons acceleration with lasers : Static electric fields COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639

5 5 Protons are accelerated from both side : COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639 Courtesy of E. D’Humières

6 6 Experimental results : Maxwellian spectra Robson et al., Nature Physics 3 (2007) V. Malka et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 15 (2003), Med. Phys. 31, 6 (2004) COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639 M. Borghesi :20 MeV, 10 20 W/cm 2, 50 fs laser, D. Neely QM?

7 7 Experimental results : quasi mono energetic spectra Schwoerer, H. et al., Nature, 439 (2006) COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639

8 8 3D Simulations : quasi mono energetic Spectra @ 170 MeW with PW laser Schwoerer, H. et al., Nature, 439 (2006) code 0.5  m 0.03  m Gold protons 5m5m 10  m TARGET  pe /  = 3  pe /  = 0.53 COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639

9 9 3D Simulations: Radiation Pressure Dominated regime with Linear Polarization I=10 23 W/cm 2, Target thickness = 1  m, N e =5 10 22 cm -3 COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639 Esirkepov, Bulanov, PRL 04

10 10 2 D Simulations* : Radiation Pressure Dominated regime with Circular Polarization Macchi A et al 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 165003 Robinson A P L et al 2008 New J. Phys. 10 013021 *Klimo O et al 2008 Phys. Rev. ST-AB 11 031301 COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639 I=3x10 20 W/cm 2, N e =1.5 10 22 cm -3 Target thickness = 0.2  m S. Pukhov : 3D Results are not so good

11 11 COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639 Summary Part 1 : Short review of laser produced proton beam Part 2 : On the use of proton beam for oncology Part 3 : The SAPHIR project Part 4 :Conclusion and perspectives

12 12 Causes of Local Cancer Failure The primary cause for local failure is our inability to deliver a letal dose of radiation to the tumour cells. The reasons for this include : -We cannot determine the exact location and extend tumor cells and their route to spread -Inadequate treatment. -Proximity of dose limiting normal tissues and organs (brains stem, optics, lung, gut, etc.) -Less that optimum dose distribution of the radiation beam used for treatment. COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639

13 13 Comparison of the dose distribution 100 051015 Depth in water [cm] Relative dose [%]  ray x ray neutron proton carbon ion tumor 80 60 40 20 0 COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639

14 14 Protons provide superior dose distributions Protons Stop Photons don’t stop The « optimum » dose distribution delivers 100% dose to the tumour target and not to critical normal tissues. Proton beams deliver dose distribution that are more optimum than those from photon beams This should result in improved clinical outcomes when proton beams are used. COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639

15 15 Protons provide superior dose distributions COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639

16 16 Protontherapy Facilities in the World 26 facilities worldwide treating patients 6 in Japan (4 hospital-based) : Chiban, NCC East- Kashiva, HIBMC-Hyogo, PMRC-Tsukuba, WERC-Wakasa, Shizuoka,Cancer Center 6 in the United States (4 hospital-based) : LLUMC, MGH, MDACC, Univ. of Florida, Univ. of Indiana, UC Davis 10 in Europe/Russia 4 additional facilites (UK, China, Korea, South Africa) > 55,000 patients have been treated with proton beams 22 additional Institutions worldwide are developing new facilities COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639

17 17 Protontherapy Facilities in the World TREATING : PROTONS 26, CARBON IONS 3 COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639

18 18 Protontherapy center : large & expensive & performant COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639

19 19 Accelerators used in protonthrapy COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639

20 20 Accelerators specifications protontherapy Diameter : 3,4 m Weigth 60 tons « self » radioprotection Courant max : 500 nA (3. 10 12 p.s -1 ) Output Energiy : 250 MeV Extraction efficiency : 80 % Emittance : few p-mm.mrad 95 % reliability (garanty by the compagny) 6 compagnies in the world Cost ~10 M€ COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639

21 21 Accelerators specifications protonthrapy COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639

22 22 COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639 Summary Part 1 : Short review of laser produced proton beam Part 2 : On the use of proton beam for oncology Part 3 : The SAPHIR project Part 4 :Conclusion and perspectives

23 23 Tumor Site Head/Neck Gastrointestinal Gynecologic Genitourinary Lung Breast Lymphoma Skin, Bone, Soft Tissue Brain Deaths/year 22,000 135,000 28,000 55,000 160,000 41,000 20,000 15,000 12,000 Deaths due to local failure of treatment 13,200 (60%) 54,000 (40%) 14,000 (50%) 27,500 (50%) 40,000 (25%) 4,920 (12%) 2,400 (12%) 5,000 (33%) 10,800 (90%) Total 488,000 171,820 (35%) 350,000 new cancer patients per year in the US Need for improvement in cancer treatment COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639

24 24 Indications for protontherapy in France Very selective prescription because of the cost and of the weight of the infrastrucutre. Determined by the need of having an high balistic precision. recent publication: protontherapy should be beneficial for 15% of patients wich requires radiotherapy treatment (i.e. 27.000 patients per year in France) Capacity of protontherapy in France : 600 patients per year (800 en 2011). Medical impactTumour localisationNb of patient per yearTotal Eyes tumours400 / 450 Neuro-oncology and Rachis2.000 / 2.500 Childs and adolescent300 / 500 Sarcomes retro-peritony80 / 100 ORL500 / 1.000 Lungs (poumons)3.000 / 4.000 other cancers1.000 / 1.500 Some prostate cancers2.500 / 3.000 Re-irradiations500 / 1.000 10.300 / 14.050 Potential prescriptions 3.000 / 4.000 Estimation of the number of patients to be treated per year in France Major prescriptions 2.800 / 3.550 other possible prescriptions 4.500 / 6.500 COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639

25 25 The raisons of a non satisfied medical need Market in progress but still limited by the cost and the size of the installation Estimation of the needed protontherapy center in the world (based on the hypothesis that 15% of patients are treated by proton beam) :  In Europe : 300  In USA : 150 -2 protontherapy center in France (Orsay et Nice) -30 centres in « modern » countries -Limitation due : –Cost of the installation : 80 à 140 M€ –Size of the installation : 1000 to 2000 m² COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639

26 26 Economic Challenges  Reduce the cost  Reduce the infrastructure size  Reduce the radioprotection cost &size  Optimize the energy distribution Scientific Challenges for an alternative technique  Energy max (150-200 MeV )  Modulate and control the energy spectrum  Stable and repoducible  Compact Goal of the project :  To develop a demonstrator (pre prototype)  Machine cost less than 10-20 M€  Total size : <1000 m² The SAPHIR/PROPULSE Project Project Partners: G. RIBOULET, Amplitude Tech., PDG H. KAFROUNI, Dosisoft, PDG P. BOVAL, Propulse SAS, PDG Y. DEMAY, ENSTA, Directeur P. BEY, Inst. Curie, Dir. de l’Hôpital Curie G. LENOIR, IGR, Dir. de la Recherche D. NORMAND, CEA, Dir. SPAM-IRAMIS R. FERRAND, CPO-Curie, Resp. Tech. COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639 Phase 1 : 6ME Phase 2 : 14 ME Phase 3 : Prototype

27 27 70 m Potential advantages of laser plasma accelerators X Cyclotron or synchrotron (activation) 100 to 400 tons, power> 500 kW Laser chain, weight : 1 ton Power : 10 kW Cost : 10 ME Radioprotection is strongly reduced Wall thicknesses of 3 m Proton beam transport + radioprotection Adjustable beam parameters Gantry :10m, >120 tons, 10 MEurosBeam delivering at the end Laser beam transport No need of radioprotection COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639

28 28 PRESENT-DAY SYSTEM SUGGESTION General scheme of the GANTRY: 1.bending magnets; 2.quadrupole lenses; 3.couch (positioner); 4.dose delivery and monitoring system; 5.procedure room; 6.concrete shielding. Magneto-optic system must be precisely manufactured and capable of being rotated as a whole (~100 tons ! ). GANTRY IS NOT REQUIRED Протонный ускоритель S. Bulanov,V.Khoroshkov, PPHR 5/2002 DOUBLE-LAYER TARGET Russia: courtesy of Prof. S. Bulanov COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639

29 29 Development of Laser-Accelerated Proton Accelerators for Cancer Therapy USA Courtesy of Prof C-M Ma, Department of Radiation Oncology, Philadelphia, USA COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639

30 30 COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639 Summary Part 1 : Short review of laser produced proton beam Part 2 : On the use of proton beam for oncology Part 3 : The SAPHIR project Part 4 :Conclusion and perspectives

31 31 The concurrent : Dielectric Wall Accelerators An electric field propagates down the bore of the accelerator pushing the proton « packet » in front of it 250 MeV protons in 2 meters The goal is to have a full scale prototype operational in 4-5 years COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639

32 32 Dielectric Wall Accelerators : artistic view COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639

33 33 Application Total systems (2007) approx. System sold/yr Sales/yr ($M) System price ($M) Cancer Therapy910050018002.0 - 5.0 Ion Implantation950050014001.5 - 2.5 Electron cutting and welding45001001500.5 - 2.5 Electron beam and X-ray irradiators2000751300.2 - 8.0 Radioisotope production (incl. PET)55050701.0 - 30 Non-destructive testing (incl. security)650100700.3 - 2.0 Ion beam analysis (incl. AMS)20025300.4 - 1.5 Neutron generators (incl. sealed tubes)100050300.1 - 3.0 Total2750014003680 Industrial markert for accelerators: Total accelerators sales increase more than 10%/year COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639

34 34 Laser based protontherapy projects around the world Projet Fox Chase Center (USA) LIBRA (UK consortium) Dresden (Germany) : OnCOOPtics MPQ (Germany) JAERI (Japon): « Medical laser Valley »: PMRC Russia Italy (Bologna, Prof. G. Turchetti) Etc…? COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639

35 35 Conclusions Proton beam are produced by plasma accelerators : Stability has been improved by improving the laser contrast They produce quasi monoenergetic beam Peak energy still moderated (no evolution in 6 years) : 12MeV with 10 Hz laser, 70 MeV with PW large scale laser  Number of proton per second can be a problem ? Target fabrication and alignement at high repetition rate ? Biological response with high current dose? V. Malka et al., Nature Physics 2008 COULOMB 09, ICFA workshop, Senigallia, Italia, June 8-12 (2009) http://loa.ensta.fr/ UMR 7639 Proton beam are produced by plasma accelerators : Stability has been improved by improving the laser contrast They produce quasi monoenergetic beam Peak energy still moderated (no evolution in 6 years) : 12MeV with 10 Hz laser, 70 MeV with PW large scale laser  : 20 MeV with 50fs Number of proton per second can be a problem ? Target fabrication and alignement at high repetition rate ? In progress (LIBRA) Biological response with high current dose?


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