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8th Grade SAT 9 Review The purpose of this review is to revisit the concepts which will be covered in the SAT 9 tests Hey KIDS!! after the review we will.

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Presentation on theme: "8th Grade SAT 9 Review The purpose of this review is to revisit the concepts which will be covered in the SAT 9 tests Hey KIDS!! after the review we will."— Presentation transcript:

1 8th Grade SAT 9 Review The purpose of this review is to revisit the concepts which will be covered in the SAT 9 tests Hey KIDS!! after the review we will play a Jeopardy style review game. Take notes as these notes should be studied for the Jeopardy Review

2 STANDARD 9a Plan and conduct a scientific investigation to test a hypothesis

3 Investigation and Experimentation Scientific inquiry refers to the different ways scientists study the natural world Process of scientific inquiry can be broken down into several steps, including –Posing questions –Developing hypotheses – possible answer to a scientific question or an explanation for a set of observations –Designing experiments – identify the variables, factors that can change in an experiment

4 Investigation and Experimentation –Collecting and interpreting data – observations and measurements made in an experiment –Drawing conclusions – sums up what you have learned from an experiment –Communicating ideas and results

5 Investigation and Experimentation 3.A student wanted to find out if changing the volume of water changes its density. Which statement is a prediction that the student could test in his investigations? AWater is not very dense BThe density of water increases as its temperature increases CThe density of water remains the same no matter how the volume of the sample is changed DDensity equals mass divided by volume ANSWER: C

6 Investigation and Experimentation 4.A student conducting an experiment wants to make sure his results are reliable. What should he do? ARepeat the experiment several times and average the results BRepeat the experiment several times and use the fastest results CRepeat the experiment using a different responding variable DRepeat the experiment using a different manipulated variable ANSWER: A

7 STANDARD 9b Evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of data

8 Investigation and Experimentation Important concepts: –E–Evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of data Accuracy - repeated tests that give the same results for each test. Reproducibility - can an experiment be repeated by anyone and get the same results

9 6.The actual length of a rectangular room is 6.60 meters. A student measures the length of the room three times and gets measurements of 7.49 m, 7.50 m, and 7.48 m. The student’s measurements can be described as Aboth accurate and reproducible Breproducible but not accurate Caccurate but not reproducible Dneither accurate nor reproducible ANSWER: B

10 STANDARD 9c Distinguish between variable and controlled parameters in a test

11 Investigation and Experimentation Variables –Manipulated (Independent) – what you have control over. What you change. –Responding (Dependent) - what you measure

12 Investigation and Experimentation Manipulated variable: slope of ramp. You change the angle of the ramp to see how it changes the speed Responding variable: speed. What we want to find out. The results that we measure Controlled Parameter: same ball used for each trial

13 Investigation and Experimentation Responding Variable (Dependent Variable) y-axis Manipulated Variable (Independent Variable) x-axis

14 Investigation and Experimentation 8.Which parameter in this experiment was the responding variable (dependent variable)? a. The temperature of the water b. The location of the insulated mug c. The brand of insulated mug d. The length of time the water was allowed to cool ANSWER: A

15 Investigation and Experimentation 10. An experiment involves measuring the time it takes for heat to be conducted along the lengths of several bars made of different substances. The bars have the same length and the same cross-sectional area. What is the manipulated (independent) variable in this experiment? Athe length of each bar Bthe time during which heat is conducted Cthe substance of which each bar is made Dthe cross-sectional area of each bar ANSWER: C

16 Investigation and Experimentation 11. A student designs a controlled experiment to test how the shape of an object affects how fast it falls when dropped. Which of the following is NOT a controlled parameter in the student’s experiment? Athe shape of the object Bthe height from which the object is dropped Cthe mass of the object Dthe initial velocity of the object ANSWER: A

17 STANDARD 9d Recognize the slope of the linear graph as the constant in the relationship y = kx and apply this principle in interpreting graphs constructed from data

18 Graphing and Types of Graphs Slope of a line- the steeper the slope the greater the rate of change Use the formula

19 Graphing and Types of Graphs 12.What information does the slope of a line on a graph provide? Ahow much y changes for every change in x Bhow much x changes for every change in y Chow much the manipulated variable changes with the responding variable Dhow much the independent variable changes with the dependent variable ANSWER: A

20 Graphing and Types of Graphs 13. A scientist heated a balloon. As the balloon was heated, the gas inside expanded. The scientist measured the balloon’s size at every temperature increase of 10 degrees and then graphed the data as shown. What would be the size of the balloon if the temperature were 60°C? A72 mL B75 mL C78 mL D80 mL ANSWER: C

21 Graphing and Types of Graphs 14. What is the slope of the line? A0.3°C/mL B0.3 mL/°C C3°C/mL D3 mL/°C ANSWER: B

22 STANDARD 9e Construct appropriate graphs from data and develop quantitative statements about the relationships between variables

23 Graphing and Types of Graphs Pie Charts or Circle Charts: used to display the sizes of parts that make up some whole.

24 Graphing and Types of Graphs Bar Graph: used for comparing two or more values

25 Graphing and Types of Graphs Line Graph: used to display data that show how one variable (the responding variable) changes in response to another variable (the manipulated variable)

26 Graphing and Types of Graphs 15. On a line graph, the x-axis is labeled with the name of the Amanipulated variable Bresponding variable Ccontrolled variable Dcategories being compared ANSWER: A

27 Graphing and Types of Graphs 16. A bar graph would be best used to graph which of the following? Ashowing how the mass of an object affects how fast it falls Bshowing how far a train travels in a certain amount of time Cshowing the percentage of Earth’s crust made up of iron Dcomparing the boiling points of different elements ANSWER: D

28 Graphing and Types of Graphs 17. A student collected these data while testing how the pressure of a gas changed at different temperatures. What kind of graph should the student use? Acircle graph Bline graph Cbar graph Dpie graph ANSWER: B

29 STANDARD 9f Apply simple mathematic relationships to determine a missing quantity in a mathematic expression, given the two remaining terms including: speed = distance / time density = mass / volume force = pressure x area volume = area x height

30 MATHEMATICAL RELATIONSHIPS Use a mathic pyramid to determine the three equations for each 3 variable formula Speed = distance / time S = d / t D S T

31 MATHEMATICAL RELATIONSHIPS Density = mass / volume D = m / V m D V

32 MATHEMATICAL RELATIONSHIPS Force = pressure x area F = P x A F P A

33 MATHEMATICAL RELATIONSHIPS Volume = area x height V = A x h V A h

34 STANDARD 9g Distinguish between linear and nonlinear relationships on a graph of data.

35 Graphing and Types of Graphs Linear graphs: Shows a constant rate of change. Straight lines Nonlinear graphs: Shows variable (increasing or decreasing) rate of change Curved or bent lines

36 TRENDS IN GRAPHS LINEAR RELATIONSHIP NONLINEAR RELATIONSHIP

37 TRENDS IN GRAPHS NONLINEAR RELATIONSHIP NO RELATIOH\NSHIP

38 Graphing and Types of Graphs Which compound shows a constant rate of change? Which compound shows an increasing rate of change? Which compound shows a decreasing rate of change?

39 STANDARD 3a Students know the structure of the atom and know it is composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons

40 Structure of Matter The Atom –All matter is made up of small particles called atoms –An atom is the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element

41 Structure of Matter The ATOM Composed of three particles protons -positively charged particles in the nucleus (center) neutrons -particles with no charge located in the nucleus (center) electrons -negatively charged particles surrounding the nucleus in shells also known as energy levels

42 Structure of Matter 18. Which of the following best describes an atom? A Protons and electrons grouped together in a random pattern B Protons and electrons grouped together in an alternating pattern C A core of protons and neutrons surrounded by electrons D A core of electrons and neutrons surrounded by protons ANSWER: C

43 Structure of Matter 20. The diagram above shows models of two different atoms. Which subatomic particles are represented by the black dots? Aprotons Bneutrons Celectrons Dnuclei ANSWER: C

44 Structure of Matter 22. Which particles in an atom account for nearly all the atom’s mass Aelectrons only Bprotons only Cneutrons only Dprotons and neutrons ANSWER: D

45 STANDARD 3b Students know that compounds are formed by combining two or more different elements and that compounds have properties that are different from their constituent elements

46 COMPOUNDS All matter is made of elements In nature, most elements are found combined with other elements A compound is a substance made of two or more elements chemically combined in a set ratio. Water molecule is always made up of two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom. When atoms combine, they form a chemical bond, which is a force of attraction between two atoms

47 COMPOUNDS Two main types of chemical bonds: ionic bonds and covalent bonds Valence electrons are the electrons that have the highest energy level and are held most loosely because the farthest away from the nucleus An ion is an atom or group of atoms that has an electric charge: positive or negative Atoms become stable (or happy) when they can have a total of 8 valence electrons

48 COMPOUNDS Ionic Bond: a chemical bond that forms as a result of the attraction between positive and negative ions Covalent Bond: a chemical bond that forms when two atoms share valence electrons A molecule is a neutral group of two or more atoms joined by covalent bonds Water is a molecular compound with a chemical formula of H 2 O

49 COMPOUNDS 24. Which of the following chemical formulas represents a compound? AHe BO2BO2 CHCl DSn ANSWER: C

50 COMPOUNDS 26. The atoms in a molecule of water are joined by Aionic bonds Bcovalent bonds Cunshared electrons Dshared protons ANSWER: B

51 COMPOUNDS 27. Magnesium reacts with oxygen to form MgO. Properties of MgO are most likely Asimilar to magnesium Bsimilar to oxygen Cdifferent from magnesium or oxygen Dsimilar to both magnesium and oxygen ANSWER: C

52 STANDARD 3c Students know atoms and molecules form solids by building up repeating patterns, such as the crystal structure of NaCl or long- chain polymers

53 STRUCTURE OF COMPOUNDS Ionic compounds form solids by building up repeating patterns of ions. The repeating pattern occurs because ion is attracted to all the surrounding ions of the opposite charge The result is a solid with an orderly, three dimensional arrangement called a crystal Solid ionic compounds are hard and brittle, have high melting points and when melted or dissolved conduct electricity

54 STRUCTURE OF COMPOUNDS Molecular compounds contain atoms that are covalently bonded. Molecular compounds are made up of molecules Molecular compounds have low melting and boiling points and do not conduct electricity Some molecular compounds are composed of polymers A polymer is a very large molecule made of a chain of many smaller molecules bonded together Many of the molecules that make up living things are polymers: DNA, proteins, carbohydrates

55 STRUCTURE OF COMPOUNDS 28. Which is not a characteristic of a molecular compound? Alow melting point Bdoes not conduct electric current Clow boiling point Dhard, brittle solids at room temperature ANSWER:D

56 STRUCTURE OF COMPOUNDS 29. What type of structure is shown in the diagram? Aatom Bcrystal Cmolecule Dpolymer ANSWER: B

57 STRUCTURE OF COMPOUNDS 30. Which of the following kinds of force helps hold the particles together? Aelectrical attraction Bmagnetic attraction Cgravitational attraction Dthermonuclear attraction ANSWER: A

58 STRUCTURE OF COMPOUNDS 31. Some compounds found in the human body are long chains of smaller molecules. These chains are called Acarbon molecules Bcovalent bonds Cpolymers Dcrystals

59 STANDARD 3d Students know the states of matter (solid, liquid, gas) depend on molecular motion

60 Molecular Motion 32. Which type of motion best represents the movement of gas particles? A Motion 1 B Motion 2 C Motion 3 D Motion 4 ANSWER: A

61 STANDARD 3e Students know that in solids the atoms are closely locked in position and can only vibrate; in liquids the atoms and molecules are more loosely connected and can collide with and move past one another; and in gases the atoms and molecules are free to move independently, colliding frequently

62 Molecular Motion Solid Liquid Liquid Gas Gas

63 Molecular Motion Definite shape and volume Lowest energy Tightly packed together Does not take the shape of its container Definite Definite volume but no definite shape Slightly Slightly higher energy than solids Molecules Molecules slide past one another Takes Takes the shape of its container No definite shape or volume Highest energy Molecules move throughout the container Takes shape of container SOLID LIQUID GAS

64 CHANGES OF STATE A change of state is the conversion of a substance from one physical form to another. All changes of state are physical changes. During a change of state, energy of a substance changes.

65 CHANGES OF STATE Melting – from a solid to a liquid Freezing – from a liquid to a solid Vaporization – from a liquid to a gas –Boiling – takes place throughout the liquid –Evaporation – takes place only on the surface Condensation – from a gas to a liquid Sublimation – from a solid to a gas

66 CHANGES OF STATE

67 33. What occurs when liquid water becomes ice? AEnergy is added to the water, so its molecules move more slowly BEnergy is added to the water, so its molecules move more quickly CEnergy is removed from the water, so its molecules lock into place DEnergy is removed from the water, so its molecules move apart ANSWER: C

68 Changes of State 34. The graph shows the effect of adding energy to water at sea level. When the temperature reaches 100 degrees Celsius, what happens to the water molecules as energy continues to be added? A. The water molecules gain energy as the temperature continues to rise B The water molecules gain no energy and the temperature stays the same C The water molecules become more ordered as the state changes to a gas D The water molecules move farther apart as the state changes to a gas ANSWER: D

69 CHANGES OF STATE 35. The diagram illustrates the particles of a solid substance held in a container. What would happen if the substance gained enough energy so that it melted completely? AThe particles would remain locked together in the same shape BThe particles would spread out into a layer that fills the bottom part of the container CThe particles would spread apart widely and fill the entire container DThe particles would chemically change into new substances ANSWER: B

70 STANDARD 3f Students know how to use the periodic table to identify elements in simple compounds

71 USING THE PERIODIC TABLE Shows all known elements organized by atomic number Elements grouped in columns share similar properties –M–Melting point, density, thermal and electrical conductivity, reactivity with other elements There are more than 100 known elements (116 to date) BLUE-metals PINK-metalloids GREENYELLOW-nonmetals

72 USING THE PERIODIC TABLE Elements on the Periodic Table are listed one to a box The basic information shown is the ELEMENT SYMBOL, ATOMIC NUMBER and ATOMIC MASS Element Symbol-an abbreviation of the element name Atomic Number-number of protons in the nucleus Atomic Mass-the number of protons and neutrons. –I–Isotopes-atoms with different numbers of neutrons. The average of these is the average atomic mass Atomic Number Element Name Element Symbol Average Atomic Mass

73 USING THE PERIODIC TABLE 36. What is the atomic mass of krypton? A36 amu B16 amu C83.6 amu D83.80 amu ANSWER: D

74 USING THE PERIODIC TABLE 37. How many protons are in the nucleus of a calcium atom? A10 B20 C40 D40.08 ANSWER: B

75 USING THE PERIODIC TABLE 38. Which elements combine to form the compound represented by the formula KCl? Apotassium, carbon, and iodine Bpotassium and calcium Cpotassium and chlorine Dkrypton and chlorine ANSWER: C

76 USING THE PERIODIC TABLE 40. Which group in the periodic table does the element calcium belong to? AGroup 1 BGroup 2 CGroup 14 DGroup 17 ANSWER: B

77 USING THE PERIODIC TABLE 41. What is the atomic number of copper? A24 B27 C29 D63.55 ANSWER: C

78 USING THE PERIODIC TABLE 42. The element shown has a mass number of 40. How many protons, electrons, and neutrons are in the element? A18 protons, 40 electrons, 18 neutrons B40 protons, 40 electrons, 22 neutrons C18 protons, 18 electrons, 22 neutrons D18 protons, 18 electrons, 18 neutrons ANSWER: C

79 STANDARD 7a Students know how to identify regions corresponding to metals, nonmetals, and inert gases

80 Periodic Table Organization Metals are found to the left of the zig-zag line Nonmetals are found to the right of the zig- zag line Metalloids are found along the zig-zag line Elements in the same column (groups) have similar properties

81 Periodic Table Organization Inert (noble) gases are the elements in Group 18 located on the far right side of the periodic table Inert (noble) gases tend to be unreactive because they do not usually gain, share, or lose valence electrons

82 Periodic Table Organization 43. Most of the elements in the periodic table are Ametals Bnonmetals Csemimetals Dinert gases ANSWER:A

83 Periodic Table Organization 44. Where are the nonmetals located on the periodic table? Ato the left of the zigzag line Bto the right of the zigzag line Cin rows 3 and 4 Din Groups 1 through 4 ANSWER: B

84 STANDARD 7b Students know each element has a specific number of protons in the nucleus (the atomic number) and each isotope of the element has a different but specific number of neutrons in the nucleus

85 Elements, Atomic Numbers, and Isotopes 47. The atomic number of hydrogen is 1. The nucleus of the isotope hydrogen-2 contains A1 proton and 1 neutron B1 proton and 0 neutrons C2 protons and 0 neutrons D1 proton and 2 neutrons ANSWER: A

86 Elements, Atomic Numbers, and Isotopes 48. Isotopes of the same element differ from each other by their Aatomic number Breactivity Cnumber of neutrons Dnumber of protons ANSWER: C

87 Elements, Atomic Numbers, and Isotopes 49. Two atoms with different atomic numbers are Athe same isotope of the same element Bdifferent isotopes of the same element Catoms of different elements Datoms that react the same way chemically ANSWER: C

88 STANDARD 7c Students know substances can be classified by their properties, including their melting temperature, density, hardness, and thermal and electrical conductivity

89 CLASSIFYING SUBSTANCES Properties of Metals –Conduct electricity and heat –Shiny –Malleable –High melting points –High density

90 CLASSIFYING SUBSTANCES Properties of Nonmetals –Poor conductors of electricity and heat –Dull in appearance –Brittle –Low melting points –Low density

91 CLASSIFYING SUBSTANCES Properties of Semimetals (Metalloids) –Have properties of both metals and nonmetals

92 CLASSIFYING SUBSTANCES The periodic table is arranged horizontally (across) in order of increasing atomic number and vertically (up and down) in columns of elements with similar chemical properties Elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons

93 CLASSIFYING SUBSTANCES 50. Which two elements identified in the periodic table most likely share similar properties? AElements A and B BElements D and E CElements C and D DElements A and E ANSWER: D

94 CLASSIFYING SUBSTANCES 51. Which of the following are good conductors of electric current Asemimetals Bmetals Cinert gases Dnonmetals ANSWER: B

95 CLASSIFYING SUBSTANCES 52. Which of the following properties is NOT a property of metals? Ahigh thermal conductivity Bbrittleness Chardness Dhigh electrical conductivity ANSWER: B

96 STANDARD 5a Students know reactant atoms and molecules interact to form products with different chemical properties

97 CHEMICAL REACTIONS The reactants are the atoms and molecules that start a chemical change or reaction The new substances that form in a chemical change are called products During a chemical change or reaction, atoms in the reactants rearrange as chemical bonds break and new bonds form When atoms rearrange, the chemical makeup of a substance changes The products of a chemical reaction have different chemical and physical properties than the reactants

98 CHEMICAL REACTIONS 55. The reactants of a chemical reaction have Achemical properties identical to the products Bchemical properties different from the products Cthe same chemical makeup as the products Dno chemical bonds ANSWER: B

99 CHEMICAL REACTIONS 56. Which is evidence that a chemical reaction might have occurred? Arelease of energy Bchange in shape Csimilarities in physical properties Dpresence of ions ANSWER: A

100 CHEMICAL REACTIONS 57. Which of the following statements is true about the reaction shown in the diagram? AThe products are identical to the reactants BThe atoms of the product rearrange to form new molecules CThe atoms of the reactants rearrange to form new molecules DNo chemical bonds are broken ANSWER: C

101 STANDARD 5b Students know the idea of atoms explains the conservation of matter: in chemical reactions the number of atoms stays the same no matter how they are arranged, so their total mass stays the same

102 CONSERVATION OF MATTER Conservation of matter states that during a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed The total number of atoms stays the same before and after the reaction

103 CONSERVATION OF MATTER 58. According to the principle of the conservation of matter Areactants have the same mass as the products Breactants have more mass than the products Cproducts have less mass than the reactants Dproducts have more mass than the reactants ANSWER: A

104 CONSERVATION OF MATTER 59. Which equation shows that the total mass during a chemical reaction stays the same? A1A1 B2B2 C3C3 D4D4 ANSWER: C

105 CONSERVATION OF MATTER N 2 O 5 + H 2 O → HNO Berta wants to balance the equation shown above. Which number should she place in front of HNO 3 in order to balance the equation? A1A1 B2B2 C3C3 D4D4 ANSWER: B

106 Chemical Reactions 61. According to the law of conservation of mass, what mass of O 2 is generated? A 8 g B 16 g C 200 g D 216 g ANSWER: B

107 STANDARD 5c Students know chemical reactions usually liberate heat or absorb heat

108 CHEMICAL REACTIONS If a chemical reaction results in the release of energy, the reaction is called an exothermic reaction This energy is often released as heat and light into the surroundings If a chemical reaction results in a net absorption of energy, the reaction is called an endothermic reaction The energy for the reaction is usually absorbed from the surroundings, which become cooler

109 CHEMICAL REACTIONS The graphs show energy changes in endothermic and exothermic reactions. The “bump” in the graph represents the activation energy, which is the minimum amount of energy required to get the reaction started Exothermic ReactionEndothermic Reaction

110 CHEMICAL REACTIONS 62. Burning wood is an exothermic reaction because Aenergy is absorbed Benergy is released Cthe reaction requires energy to keep going DActivation energy is not required ANSWER: B

111 CHEMICAL REACTIONS 63. In an endothermic reaction, Athe products give off heat Bmass is not conserved Cthe products have less energy than the reactants Dthe products have more energy than the reactants ANSWER: D

112 CHEMICAL REACTIONS 64. The graphs show the energy changes that occur during a chemical reaction. Which graph best describes a chemical reaction that absorbs energy? ANSWER: D

113 CHEMICAL REACTIONS 65. Which of the following is true of both exothermic and endothermic reactions? AThey absorb heat BThey release heat CThey require some energy to start DThey use more energy than they produce ANSWER: C

114 STANDARD 5d Students know physical processes include freezing and boiling, in which a material changes form with no chemical reaction

115 PHYSICAL CHANGES A physical change differs from a chemical change in that chemical bonds are neither broken nor formed The appearance of the substance will change, but not its chemical makeup When water changes from a liquid to a solid, the appearance changes, but the ice and liquid water have the same chemical formula: H 2 O

116 Chemical Reactions Freezing, melting and boiling are NOT chemical reactions. They are physical changes.

117 PHYSICAL CHANGES A mixture is made of two or more substances that are together in the same place but are not chemically combined: salad, pizza Making a mixture is a physical change because the parts of the mixture can be separated A solution is a uniform mixture that has the same properties throughout: salt water

118 PHYSICAL CHANGES 66. A change of state is a physical change because Athe parts of the mixture can be separated Bthe atoms of the substance form new chemical bonds Cthe boiling point of the substance changes Dthe chemical makeup of the substance stays the same ANSWER: D

119 PHYSICAL CHANGES 67. David stirs a spoonful of sugar into a glass of lemonade. As he stirs, the sugar disappears. What type of change is occurring? Achemical change Bcreation of matter Cdestruction of matter Dphysical change ANSWER: D

120 PHYSICAL CHANGES 68. During boiling, liquid water turns to water vapor. This is an example of Aphysical change Bchemical change Cchemical equation Dchemical formula ANSWER: A

121 STANDARD 5e Students know how to determine whether a solution is acidic, basic, or neutral

122 ACIDS AND BASES Properties of acids: –Taste sour –Corrosive –Conduct electricity –pH range of –Changes blue litmus paper to red

123 ACIDS AND BASES Properties of bases: –Tastes bitter –Feels slippery –Conducts electricity –Corrosive –pH range of 7.1 – 14.0 –Changes red litmus paper to blue

124 ACIDS AND BASES If the pH of a solution is 7.0 then the solution is considered neutral Water has a pH of 7.0

125 ACIDS AND BASES 71. Which of the following things could be used to determine whether a substance is an acid or a base? A an indicator B litmus paper C pH meter D all of the above ANSWER: D

126 ACIDS AND BASES 72. These data indicate that gastric juice is a Astrong acid Bstrong base Cweak acid Dweak base ANSWER: A

127 ACIDS AND BASES 73. A substance that turns red litmus paper blue is Aan acid Ba base Can indicator Da solvent ANSWER: B

128 STANDARD 6a Students know that carbon, because of its ability to combine in many ways with itself and other elements, has a central role in the chemistry of living organisms

129 CHEMISTRY OF LIVING THINGS CARBON - has four valence (outer) electrons and so it can make four bonds Carbon atoms bonded together with single, double, or triple bonds can form straight chains, branched chains, or rings Carbon’s ability to form four bonds results in millions of different shaped carbon-based molecules that allow them to have many different functions in living organisms C

130 CHEMISTRY OF LIVING THINGS 74. Unlike the atoms of most other elements, carbon atoms have which number of bonding electrons? A1A1 B2B2 C3C3 D4D4 ANSWER: D

131 CHEMISTRY OF LIVING THINGS 75. Carbon-based molecules have a wide range of chemical properties because they Ahave covalent bonds Bhave the same shape Ccan form many different shapes Dalways form straight chains ANSWER: C

132 STANDARD 6b Students know that living organisms are made of molecules consisting largely of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, and sulfur

133 CHEMISTRY OF LIVING THINGS An organic compound contains carbon Organic compounds are found in all living organisms Organic compounds include hydrocarbons, alcohols, organic acids, and polymers

134 Other Important Atoms in Living Things Most organic molecules in living things contain carbon hydrogen nitrogenoxygen sulfurphosphorus CHOPNS

135 Chemistry of Living Things 76. Compounds that contain the element carbon are called A organic compounds B polar molecules C nonpolar molecules D hydrocarbons ANSWER: A

136 Chemistry of Living Things 77. Which chemical formula does not represent an organic compound? ACH 3 OH BNH 3 CC 6 H 14 DCHCl 3 ANSWER: B

137 Chemistry of Living Things 78. Which of the following elements is not an important component of organisms? A nitrogen B oxygen C phosphorus D potassium ANSWER: D

138 STANDARD 6c Students know that living organisms have many different kinds of molecules, including small ones, such as water and salt, and very large ones, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and DNA

139 Chemistry of Living Things A carbohydrate is an energy-rich compound made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Includes sugars, starch, and cellulose. A protein is made up of smaller molecules called amino acids. Protein is used to build and repair body parts Lipids are energy-rich compounds made of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen and include fats, oils, and waxes Nucleic acids are very large molecules made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Two types: DNA and RNA. Carries genetic information

140 Chemistry of Living Things Smaller molecules that living organisms need to survive include water, vitamins, minerals, and salts Most chemical reactions that occur in living things take place in water Vitamins and minerals serve as helper molecules in many life processes Salts are required for many functions, such as contracting muscle, transmitting nerve impulses, and balancing blood pH

141 Chemistry of Living Things 79. Which of the following is the smallest molecule? Aprotein Bsugar Csalt Dcarbohydrate ANSWER: C

142 Chemistry of Living Things 80. Which molecule is NOT a chemical used by living organisms? A lipid B nucleic acid C carboxylic acid D protein ANSWER: C

143 Chemistry of Living Things 82. Which of the following kinds of chemical compounds does not contain carbon? Asugar Blipid Cwater Dprotein ANSWER: C

144 STANDARD 1a Students know position is defined in relation to some choice of a standard reference point and a set of reference directions

145 MOTION A reference point is a place or object used for comparison to define where something is. Objects that don’t move make good reference points An object is in motion if it changes position in relation to a reference point

146 MOTION 83. Which object would make the best reference point? Aa flagpole Ba mountain bike during a race Ca bird in flight Da car moving slowly on the highway ANSWER: A


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