Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Publisher The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Tinley Park, Illinois.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Publisher The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Tinley Park, Illinois."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Publisher The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Tinley Park, Illinois by Russell Krick

2 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only

3 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only  Wheel alignment principles  Caster  Camber  Toe  Steering axis inclination  Setback  Toe-out on turns (turning radius) (Continued)

4 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only  Tracking  Prealignment inspection  Adjusting wheel alignment  Wheel alignment tools and equipment  Alignment machines  Road test after alignment

5 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only The main purpose of wheel alignment is to make sure the tires roll without scuffing, slipping, or dragging under all operating conditions

6 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Alignment Angles  Six fundamental angles are needed for proper wheel alignment:  caster  camber  toe  steering axis inclination  toe-out on turns (turning radius)  tracking (thrust line)

7 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only  Forward or rearward tilt of the steering axis (steering knuckle) when viewed from the side of the vehicle  Controls the tire’s load distribution in relation to an imaginary centerline drawn through the spindle support  Caster does not affect tire wear

8 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Caster A shopping cart caster wheel illustrates negative caster

9 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Caster A bicycle wheel represents positive caster

10 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Purposes of Caster  Aid directional control  Cause the wheels to return to the straight-ahead position  Offset road crown pull (steering wheel pull caused by the hump in the center of the road)

11 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Positive Caster  Tilts the top of the steering knuckle toward the rear of the vehicle  Helps keep the wheels traveling in a straight line  When the wheels are turned, it lifts the vehicle  The vehicle’s weight tends to push the wheels back to the straight-ahead position

12 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Positive Caster More common on vehicles with power steering

13 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Negative Caster  Tilts the top of the steering knuckle toward the front of the vehicle  The wheels will be easier to turn  The wheels will tend to swivel and follow imperfections in the road

14 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Negative Caster May be used on vehicles with manual steering, to ease steering effort

15 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Caster Measurement Measured in degrees, from true vertical

16 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Caster and Road Crown Effect Road crown is the normal slope toward the outer edge of the road surface

17 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Caster and Road Crown Effect  Road crown causes the weight of the vehicle to pull the vehicle away from the center of the road  Caster is commonly used to offset the effect of road crown  The right front wheel may be set with slightly more positive caster than the left  the vehicle pulls toward the side with the more negative caster

18 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only  Inward or outward tilt of the wheel and tire assembly when viewed from the front of the vehicle  Controls whether the tire tread touches the road surface evenly  Affects tire wear

19 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Purposes of Camber  To prevent tire wear on the outer or inner tread  To load the larger inner wheel bearing  To aid steering by placing the vehicle’s weight on the inner end of the spindle

20 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Positive and Negative Camber  Positive camber  the tops of the wheels tilt outward when viewed from the front  most manufacturers specify a positive setting of about 1/4º to 1/2º  Negative camber  the tops of the wheels tilt inward when viewed from the front

21 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Positive and Negative Camber

22 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Camber Measurement Measured in degrees, from true vertical

23 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only  Difference in distance between the front and rear of the left- and right-hand wheels  Measured in inches or millimeters  Controls whether the wheels roll in the direction of travel  Affects tire wear

24 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Toe Toe-in: wheels are closer at the front than at the rear Toe-out: wheels are farther apart at the front than at the rear

25 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Rear-Wheel-Drive Toe Settings  Rolling resistance and steering system play tend to cause toe-out when driving  Toe-in compensates for these factors  By adjusting the front wheels for a slight toe-in, the wheels and tires roll straight ahead when driving  Typical setting:  1/16"–1/4" (1.6 mm–6 mm)

26 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Front-Wheel-Drive Toe Settings  The front wheels are pushed forward by engine torque, causing the wheels and tires to toe in  To compensate for this action, front- wheel-drive vehicles normally have the front wheels adjusted for a slight toe- out  Typical setting:  1/16" (1.6 mm)

27 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only  The angle, away from the vertical, formed by the inward tilt of the steering axis (ball joints, king pin, or MacPherson strut tube)  Aids directional stability by helping the steering wheel return to the straight- ahead position  Does not affect tire wear

28 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Steering Axis Inclination If the angle is incorrect, part replacement is needed

29 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only  One front wheel is set farther back from the front of the vehicle than the other front wheel  with positive setback, the right wheel is farther back than the left wheel  with negative setback, the left wheel is farther back than the right wheel  Excessive setback will cause pull

30 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Setback  Manufacturing tolerances generally allow a small amount of setback  Excessive setback is usually the result of collision damage

31 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only  Amount the front wheels toe-out when turning corners  As the vehicle corners, the inside tire must travel in a smaller radius circle than the outside tire  The inside wheel turns sharper than the outside wheel

32 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Toe-Out on Turns

33 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Toe-Out on Turns  Eliminates tire scrubbing and squealing by keeping the tires rolling in the right direction during turns  Not an adjustable angle  If the angle is incorrect, it indicates bent or damaged steering parts

34 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only  Position or direction of the two front wheels in relation to the two rear wheels  With the proper tracking, the rear tires follow in the tracks of the front tires  With improper tracking, the rear tires do not follow the tracks of the front tires  increased tire wear, lower fuel economy, and handling problems can result

35 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Tracking

36 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only  Before attempting wheel alignment, make sure all steering-related and suspension-related parts are in good condition  It is impossible to properly align the wheels on a vehicle with worn or damaged parts

37 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Prealignment Inspection Points  Check for the following:  loose wheel bearings  wheel or tire runout  worn tires  tires of different sizes and types  incorrect tire inflation  worn steering or suspension components  incorrect curb height and weight  incorrect cradle alignment

38 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Reading Tire Wear

39 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Cradle Alignment  The cradle is the strong metal structure bolted to the frame rails on the body  holds the lower control arms, steering rack, and engine in alignment in the body  Loosening and moving the cradle can alter alignment  Alignment holes may be provided in the cradle and body to assure proper alignment

40 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Caster, camber, and toe are the three commonly adjustable wheel alignment angles

41 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Caster and Camber Adjustment

42 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Caster and Camber Adjustment

43 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Toe Adjustment Changing the tie-rod length on a rack-and-pinion unit

44 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Changing the tie-rod length on a linkage-type steering system Toe Adjustment

45 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Centering Steering Wheel

46 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Adjusting Rear Wheel Alignment  Some vehicles have provisions for rear wheel alignment  Rear wheel alignment problems can occur due to component wear or damage  Procedures for rear wheel adjustment vary

47 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Adjusting Rear Wheel Alignment On this axle, shim placement changes alignment angles

48 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only  Various equipment and special tools are needed  The most basic equipment includes the turning radius gauge, the caster- camber gauge, and the tram gauge  Alignment racks integrate the functions of all these gauges into one machine

49 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Wheel Alignment Tools

50 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Wheel Alignment Tools A. Steering wheel lock B. Brake pedal depressor

51 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Turning Radius Gauges  Measure how many degrees the front wheels are turned right or left  Commonly used when measuring caster, camber, and toe-out on turns  The gauges may be portable or mounted on the alignment rack

52 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Using Turning Radius Gauges  Center the front wheels of the vehicle on the turning radius gauges  Pull out the locking pins so the gauge and tire turn together  The pointer on the gauge will indicate how many degrees the wheels have been turned

53 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Checking Toe-Out on Turns  Center the front wheels of the vehicle on the turning radius gauges  Turn one of the front wheels until the gauge reads 20º  Read the number of degrees showing on the other gauge  Check both the right and left sides  both sides must be within specs

54 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Caster-Camber Gauges  Used with the turning radius gauge to measure caster and camber in degrees  Secured on the wheel hub magnetically or fastened on the wheel rim  Caster and camber are adjusted together since one adjustment may affect the other

55 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Caster-Camber Gauge Mounting

56 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Used to compare the distance between the front and rear of a vehicle’s tires for checking toe adjustment Tram Gauges

57 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only  The alignment machine consists of a rack, console, and related parts  Rack  consists of a lift, turning radius gauges, and equipment for measuring alignment angles  Console  consists of a color monitor, keypad, and computer

58 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Alignment Machine

59 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Console This console provides training, instructions, specifications, and feedback when doing wheel alignment

60 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Software  Alignment equipment software contains computer instructions, equipment operating instructions, and alignment specifications  When installed in the computer, the software will help you adjust all alignment angles quickly and easily  Usually stored on a CD-ROM

61 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Alignment Heads  Mount on the vehicle’s wheels  Brackets are used for mounting the alignment heads on the wheels  Use lasers or proximity sensors to compare the alignment of each wheel  Used to check caster, camber, and toe

62 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Alignment Head

63 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Using Alignment Equipment  Always follow the operating instructions provided by the manufacturer  Drive the vehicle up on the lift  Carefully center the front tires on the turning radius gauges  Block the rear wheels  Mount the alignment heads on the wheels

64 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Using Alignment Equipment  Turn on the alignment console  Follow the computer prompts  After you identify the vehicle, the computer will retrieve stored data about performing an alignment on the vehicle  As you make adjustments, the equipment will monitor the changes in the alignment angles

65 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Using Alignment Equipment This technician is using a four-wheel alignment machine with a color monitor

66 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Using Alignment Equipment This monitor is displaying alignment angles with instructions for adjustment

67 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only  Always road test the vehicle to check your work  Drive on level pavement  Check the steering wheel alignment  Feel for steering wheel pull  Check for other problems, such as noise or vibration

68 © Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Noise and Vibration Diagnosis Chart


Download ppt "© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only Publisher The Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Tinley Park, Illinois."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google