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Images Formed by Spherical Mirrors Concave Mirrors A spherical mirror has the shape of a section of a sphere. This type of mirror focuses incoming parallel rays to a point The mirror has a radius of curvature R, and its center of curvature is point C. Point V is the center of the spherical section, and a line through C and V is called the principal axis of the mirror.

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paraxial rays all rays that diverge from the object and make a small angle with the principal axis. All paraxial rays reflect through the image point, as shown in Figure The image formed by a spherical concave mirror when the object O lies outside the center of curvature C. This geometric construction is used to derive Equation

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To calculate the image distance q from a knowledge of the object distance p and radius of curvature R. we see that tanθ=h/p, and from the right triangle we see that tanθ=- h´/q. The negative sign is introduced because the image is inverted, so h´ is taken to be negative. the magnification of the image is the two triangles have α as one angle that We find that

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From the equation we have P(R-q)= p(p-R) pR-pq=qp-qR 2qp=R(p+q) Divided by pq Simple algebra reduces this to This expression is called the mirror equation. when the object is very far from the mirror, the image point is halfway between the center of curvature and the center point on the mirror, as shown in Figure

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We call the image point in this special case the focal point f, and the image distance the focal length f, where Focal length is a parameter particular to a given mirror Notice that : the focal length of a mirror depends only on the curvature of the mirror and not on the material from which the mirror is made. Why?

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Ray Diagrams for Mirrors we draw the following three principal rays: Ray 1 is drawn from the top of the object parallel to the principal axis and is reflected through the focal point F. Ray 2 is drawn from the top of the object through the focal point and is reflected parallel to the principal axis. Ray 3 is drawn from the top of the object through the center of curvature C and is reflected back on itself. The intersection of any two of these rays locates the image. The third ray serves as a check of the construction.

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Example: A concave spherical mirror has a radius of curvature of 20.0 cm. Find the location of the image for object distances of (a) 40.0 cm, (b) 20.0 cm, and (c) 10.0 cm. For each case, state whether the image is real or virtual and upright or inverted. Find the magnification in each case.

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Example: A concave mirror has a focal length of 40.0 cm. Determine the object position for which the resulting image is upright and four times the size of the object.

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Convex Mirrors For convex mirrors, we draw the following three principal rays: Ray 1 is drawn from the top of the object parallel to the principal axis and is reflected away from the focal point F. Ray 2 is drawn from the top of the object toward the focal point on the back side of the mirror and is reflected parallel to the principal axis. Ray 3 is drawn from the top of the object toward the center of curvature C on the back side of the mirror and is reflected back on itself. The image has the properties: The image is virtual, why? the image is always upright the image is always smaller than the object In a convex mirror, the image of an object is always virtual, upright, and reduce

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Example: A spherical convex mirror has a radius of curvature with a magnitude of 40.0 cm. Determine the position of the virtual image and the magnification for object distances of (a) 30.0 cm and (b) 60.0 cm. (c) Are the images upright or inverted?

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Example: At an intersection of hospital hallways, a convex mirror is mounted high on a wall to help people avoid collisions. The mirror has a radius of curvature of 0.550 m. Locate and describe the image of a patient 10.0 m from the mirror. Determine the magnification

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Example: For a convex mirror of focal length 3 cm find the place where the image is formed and if this image magnified if the object distance 4.5cm Solution: f=-3 and P=4.5cm Image is Virtual, upright and smaller

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Refraction When a ray of light traveling through a transparent medium encounters a boundary of transparent medium part of the energy is reflected and part enters the second medium. The ray that enters the second medium is bent at the boundary and is said to be refracted. The incident ray, the reflected ray, and the refracted ray all lie in the same plane. where v 1 is the speed of light in the first medium and v 2 is the speed of light in the second medium.

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(a)When the light beam moves from air into glass, the light slows down on entering the glass and its path is bent toward the normal. (b)When the beam moves from glass into air, the light speeds up on entering the air and its path is bent away from the normal.

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