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Organic MoleculeMonomerPolymer CarbohydrateMonosaccharidePolysaccharide ProteinAmino Acid Protein aka Polypeptide Lipid a.Glycerol + 3 fatty acid chains.

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Presentation on theme: "Organic MoleculeMonomerPolymer CarbohydrateMonosaccharidePolysaccharide ProteinAmino Acid Protein aka Polypeptide Lipid a.Glycerol + 3 fatty acid chains."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organic MoleculeMonomerPolymer CarbohydrateMonosaccharidePolysaccharide ProteinAmino Acid Protein aka Polypeptide Lipid a.Glycerol + 3 fatty acid chains b.Steroid rings Lipid Nucleic AcidNucleotideNucleic Acid

2 Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins And Nucleic Acids

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5 Glucose Glycogen Lactose Sucrose

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7  Single sugar unit  Empirical formula:  C:H 2 :O Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Fructose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Ribose (C 5 H 10 O 5 )  2 linked sugar units  Ex:  Sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 )  Lactose (C 12 H 22 O 11 )

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9  a large molecule made up of many sugar subunits  Examples: Starch—a molecule plants use to store energy Cellulose—make up plant cell walls Glycogen—a molecule animals use to store energy in blood

10  Organic Molecule Name  Structure of monomer/subunits  Structure of polymer  Functions  Elements  Monomer name & Examples  Polymer name & Examples

11  Obtain Carbon molecules, construction paper, glue/tape, scissors  Cut out all monosaccharide shapes along solid lines  Monosaccharide: glue one glucose to paper  Dehydration synthesis: cut out the H and OH to make space for the new bond.  Make a water molecule: Attach H-OH, glue to paper.  Make disaccharide: Attach subunits, glue to paper  Repeat for polysaccharide

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14 1. Enzymes (protein catalysts)—speed up chemical reactions 2. Transport proteins—allow chemicals to enter/exit cells through the cell membrane 3. Antibodies—fight off disease 4. Communication—hormones (insulin), Growth Factors, other signals 5. Structural proteins—found in hair, muscle, tendons…

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16 There are 20 amino acids that make up human proteins.

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18 peptide bond + H 2 O

19  hive/animations/hires/a_proteo1_h.html hive/animations/hires/a_proteo1_h.html

20  Amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids.  The sequence is specific for each protein

21  If you change the shape, you will affect the function (either making it less efficient, or totally dysfunctional)

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23 alpha helice : beta sheet :

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29 1. Energy Storage: Triglycerides in blood stores 2X more energy than starch 2. Cell Membrane Components: Phospholipids & cholesterol 3. Sex Hormones: steroids, including testosterone and estrogen 4. Insulation: fat provides warmth and organ cushioning 5. Water proofing: Oils and Waxes waterproof leaves and water animals

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31  Glycerol +3 Fatty Acid Chains HHHHHH

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34 Saturated fatty acids: all single bonds straight chain solid at room temp Unsaturated fatty acids: At least one double bond in one of the chains Bent chain Liquid at room temp ** The triglyceride above is an unsaturated fat—it has one fatty acid chain with a double bond (bent chain) **

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37 Phospholipids: Change one of the chains to a phosphate group Steroids: Four fused carbon rings, honeycomb structure

38 1. What is the primary function of lipids? 2. Which is NOT an example of a lipid: a) Glucose b) Cholesterol c) Testosterone d) Phospholipid 3. What subunits make up a lipid? 4. Why don’t lipids mix with water? 5. What are the differences between a saturated fat and an unsaturated fat?

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40  DNA must remain inside the nucleus  RNA can leave the nucleus and go into the cytplasm

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42 MonomerPolymer Carb Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Front: Draw monomer & Polymer structures. Write examples for each. Back: Identify functions & examples with descriptions Summarize your Knowledge


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