Single sugar unit Empirical formula: C:H 2 :O Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Fructose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Ribose (C 5 H 10 O 5 ) 2 linked sugar units Ex: Sucrose (C 12 H 22 O 11 ) Lactose (C 12 H 22 O 11 )
a large molecule made up of many sugar subunits Examples: Starch—a molecule plants use to store energy Cellulose—make up plant cell walls Glycogen—a molecule animals use to store energy in blood
Organic Molecule Name Structure of monomer/subunits Structure of polymer Functions Elements Monomer name & Examples Polymer name & Examples
Obtain Carbon molecules, construction paper, glue/tape, scissors Cut out all monosaccharide shapes along solid lines Monosaccharide: glue one glucose to paper Dehydration synthesis: cut out the H and OH to make space for the new bond. Make a water molecule: Attach H-OH, glue to paper. Make disaccharide: Attach subunits, glue to paper Repeat for polysaccharide
1. Enzymes (protein catalysts)—speed up chemical reactions 2. Transport proteins—allow chemicals to enter/exit cells through the cell membrane 3. Antibodies—fight off disease 4. Communication—hormones (insulin), Growth Factors, other signals 5. Structural proteins—found in hair, muscle, tendons…
There are 20 amino acids that make up human proteins.
Amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids. The sequence is specific for each protein
If you change the shape, you will affect the function (either making it less efficient, or totally dysfunctional)
alpha helice : beta sheet :
1. Energy Storage: Triglycerides in blood stores 2X more energy than starch 2. Cell Membrane Components: Phospholipids & cholesterol 3. Sex Hormones: steroids, including testosterone and estrogen 4. Insulation: fat provides warmth and organ cushioning 5. Water proofing: Oils and Waxes waterproof leaves and water animals
Glycerol +3 Fatty Acid Chains HHHHHH
Saturated fatty acids: all single bonds straight chain solid at room temp Unsaturated fatty acids: At least one double bond in one of the chains Bent chain Liquid at room temp ** The triglyceride above is an unsaturated fat—it has one fatty acid chain with a double bond (bent chain) **
Phospholipids: Change one of the chains to a phosphate group Steroids: Four fused carbon rings, honeycomb structure
1. What is the primary function of lipids? 2. Which is NOT an example of a lipid: a) Glucose b) Cholesterol c) Testosterone d) Phospholipid 3. What subunits make up a lipid? 4. Why don’t lipids mix with water? 5. What are the differences between a saturated fat and an unsaturated fat?
DNA must remain inside the nucleus RNA can leave the nucleus and go into the cytplasm
MonomerPolymer Carb Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Front: Draw monomer & Polymer structures. Write examples for each. Back: Identify functions & examples with descriptions Summarize your Knowledge