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NSCA Chapter 23. Factors in Program Design  Overload Principle SAID (Specific Adaptations to Imposed Demands) ○ Training loads must be progressively.

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Presentation on theme: "NSCA Chapter 23. Factors in Program Design  Overload Principle SAID (Specific Adaptations to Imposed Demands) ○ Training loads must be progressively."— Presentation transcript:

1 NSCA Chapter 23

2 Factors in Program Design  Overload Principle SAID (Specific Adaptations to Imposed Demands) ○ Training loads must be progressively increased or there will be no adaptation only maintenance ○ Overload can be applied by increasing the amount of weight lifted in an exercise, incorporating more workouts in a week, including more (or more difficult) exercises, adding sets to one or more exercises in a workout.

3 Factors in Program Design  Specificity Specific training produce specific training results The more similar the training activity is to the actual sport movement, the greater the likelihood of a positive transfer to that sport. ○ Therefore, the personal trainer should design resistance training program to include at least one exercise that mimics the movement pattern of each primary skill of the athlete’s sport.

4 Factors in Program Design  Specificity Match the metabolic (Phosphagen, glycolytic, oxidative systems) and biomechanical characteristics of the training program to the sport activity. ○ At least one exercise that mimics the movement pattern of each of the primary skills of the athlete’s sport Force development and application are developed through power exercises with moderate loads that are performed explosively

5 Specificity (Table 23.1)  Sport specific exercises examples Ball dribbling and passing Chest pass, reverse curl, close-grip bench press, triceps pushdown, depth push-up Ball kickingSplit squat, split squat jump, cable hip abduction/adduction, leg raise Freestyle swimmingLat Pulldown, forward lunge, bent over lateral raise, standing long jump, double-leg vertical jump JumpingPower clean, jerk, back squat, double-leg tuck jump, jump to box, front barrier hop Racket StrokeDumbbell fly, reverse fly, wrist curl, wrist supination, wrist pronation RowingAngled leg press, low pulley row, barbell bent-over row, double-leg tuck jump, bent knee sit-up, 45 degree sit-up Running/SprintingLunge, box step-up, single-leg straight-leg deadlift, power clean, butt kicker, stationary arm swing, downhill sprint, partner-assisted towing, uphill sprint, partner assisted sprinting Throwing/PitchingDumbbell pullover, triceps extension, front raise, shoulder internal/external rotation Sport SkillRelated sport-specific exercises

6 Periodization  Periodization is the systematic process of planned variations in a resistance training program over a training cycle.  The primary goals of periodization are met by manipulating volume and intensity and by effectively selecting exercises.  One advantage of periodization is the decreased risk of overtraining due to the purposeful time devoted to physical and mental recovery.  Typically only core exercises are periodized, but all exercises can be varied for intensity and volume

7 Periodization  Cycles and Phases Cycles ○ Macrocycle The largest division, which typically constitutes an entire training year up to four years (for an Olympian) Typically consist of two or more mesocycles ○ Mesocycle Cycle that is divided into several weeks to a few months. The number of mesocycles is dependent upon client goals and the applicable amount of sport competitions in each cycle ○ Microcycle Range from one to four weeks which include daily and weekly training variations

8 Periodization  Cycles and Phases Phases ○ Hypertrophy phase: To develop a muscular and metabolic base for more intense future training using a resistance training program that includes sport-specific or non-sport- specific exercises performed at high volume and a low intensity. ○ Strength phase: To increase maximal muscle force by following a resistance training program that focuses on sport-specific exercises of moderate volume and intensity.

9 Periodization  Cycles and Phases Phases ○ Strength/Power phase: To increase the speed of force development and power by integrating sport- specific power/explosive exercises of low volume and high intensity. ○ Competition or peaking phase: To attain peak strength and power by performing a very high- intensity and very low-volume sport-specific resistance training program. ○ Active rest phase: To allow physiological and mental recovery through limited low-volume and low-intensity resistance training or the performance of physical activities unrelated to one’s sport.

10 Periodization  Variation in Exercise Selection Certain core exercises need to be maintained throughout the training program so that progress in the major exercises can be continuously made. ○ Changes in exercises may be made every two or three weeks, or some exercises can be varied on an every other training session basis Variations in exercise selection for the same muscle group result in greater increases in strength and power than a program with no variation in exercises

11 Periodization ○ A 4-6 week lower intensity, base training program should be completed prior starting periodized program. (mandatory for beginners and may or may not be necessary for experienced or trained athletes)  Linear Periodization (modulate load, but volume stays intact throughout the week) Training intensity gradually increases, and training volume gradually and continually decreases from one mesocycle to the next. ○ If there is variation in the loading within the week or microcycle, the number of sets and repetitions for a given exercise does not change across the workouts.  Undulating or Non-Linear Periodization (Varies the intensity AND volume throughout the week) Within the week or microcylce vacillations in both the assigned training load and the training volume for most (or all) core exercises

12 Periodization  Linear Periodization Within the week variations of intensity (heavy, medium, light) and a constant set and repetition assignments. ○ Table 23.2 (summary of linear periodization program design {core exercises}) PhaseLength(wks)SetsGoal (reps)Rest (time)Assigned load Hypertrophy to 2 min ~75% 1RM, % 8RM-12RM Strength to 5 min ~85% 1RM, % 5RM-6RM Strength/Power to 3 min 90-93% 1RM, % 3RM-4RM Competition to 5 min ≥95% 1RM, % 1RM-2RM Active Rest1 No resistance training

13 Periodization Table 23.4, pg. 595 PhaseSetsGoal (reps) Rest (time)Assigned Load Heavy to 4 min 85-93% 1RM, % 3RM- 6RM Light to 2 min 63-75% 1RM, 70-80% 10RM- 15RM Power to 3 min Power exercises: % 1RM, 50-80% 2RM-4RM Other core exercises: 90-95% 1RM, 80-90% 8RM-10RM Moderate to 2 min 75-80% 1RM, 80-90% 8RM- 10RM

14 Periodization  Undulating (non-linear) periodization Within the week variations of intensity (heavy, medium, light) and a variable volume (set and repetition assignments). ○ Table 23.4 (summary of non-linear periodization program design {core exercises}) ○ A non-linear program can use the same time period as a linear program (12-16 weeks)

15 Periodization  Effectiveness of linear and non-linear periodized programs The systematic variation and incorporated rest phases lead to greater adaptations with a lower chance of overtraining and injury. During the in-season for an athlete the frequency of training is reduced and volume is modified in relation to the amount of competition and sport practice that is required (example: Wrestling has many competitions and a long season)


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