2AgendaLook at three factors for distinguishing appearance from reality.Confirmation, Coherence, Independent TestimonyReflect on your own senses – shortcomings and strengths.End Goal: Personal connection to the material – Do you trust knowledge gained from your senses?
3Quote 1“Your appearance, attitude, and confidence define you as a person.” –Lorii MyersAgree? Disagree?What should define you as a person?Can you fake/misinterpret appearance? Attitude? Confidence?How do your senses show you appearance, attitude, and confidence?
4Appearance v. Reality Eye-witness testimony Trust Senses to some extent?How do we distinguish appearance from reality?ConfirmationCoherenceIndependent Testimony
5Confirmation by Another Sense Another sense can confirm what you are thinking.If it looks like an apple, and tastes like an apple…then it is reasonable to assume it is an appleSCIENCE:Pencil half immersed in beaker of water, appears bent to the eyeTouch: Proves it is not bent
6Question 1Do human beings have a dominant sense? Is the confirmation from a certain sense more valuable than another one?
7CoherenceDoes what you see/hear/taste/smell/touch fit in with your experiences of/in the world?The idea of coherence is that what you are experiencing makes sense and it believable.Drunk man sees a pig flying…the next morning he probably wont believe it.
8Independent Testimony Did several other people witness it to?Eye-Witness Testimony – can more than one person back up your claim?If many other people confirm what you experienced, then chances are you are correctUNLESS you are involved in some crazy conspiracy theory!
9SummarizeSenses are liable to errorWe can correct our mistakes/confirm our observations using confirmation, coherence, and independent testimony.Knowledge can be risky – less than certain.
10Question 2Look back to your answer yesterday… How do you know if you can trust what a witness is saying?Now, if you were a juror, what specific things would you need in order to believe eye-witness testimony? What would you change in your answer? What would you add to your answer?
12Agenda Discuss quotes pertaining to appearance and reality Look at different theories of realityCommon Sense RealismScientific RealismPhenomenalismEND GOAL: Gain enough information to start evaluating your senses. Which of your senses is most reliable? Which theory do you believe in?
13Quote 1“Believe nothing, no matter where you read it, who said it, no matter if I have said it, unless it agree with your own reason and your own common sense.” – BuddhaIs this quote always true? When is it? When is it not?Whose word do you always trust? Anyone?
14Perception vs. Reality Pain, taste, color? Tree falls in the forest? Is it all subjective?Tree falls in the forest?Does it really make a sound?Tables in this classroom?Are they still there at night?
15Theories 2- Scientific Realism 3 - Phenomenalism Different theories between the relationship between perception and reality:1- Common-Sense Realism2- Scientific Realism3 - Phenomenalism
16Common-Sense RealismThe way we perceive the world mirrors the way the world is.
17Question 1Based on your notes, what are some arguments for and against common-sense realism?Use your own words and examples.
18Scientific RealismThe world exists as an independent reality, but it is very different from the way we perceive it.
19Scientific Realism Sir Arthur Eddington and the table. Common Sense: A table is a certain color, is permanent, substantial, and usefulScientific: “My scientific table is mostly emptiness. Sparsely scattered in that emptiness are numerous electric charges rushing about with great speed.”Sir Arthur Eddington and the table.
20Scientific RealismScientific Picture of Reality: comfortable and sensuous picture of our world is replaced with this colorless, soundless, odorless realm of atoms
21PhenomenalismExplands on empiricism (all knowledge must be based on experience)Matter is the permanent possibility of sensation“To be is to be perceived.” –George Berkeley
22PhenomenalismWe cannot know what the world is like independent of what we experienceBut it DOES existBeyond our experience of reality, nothing can be said.We can only know the world from our perspective and we have no right to make assumptions and claims about what we haven’t experienced- humility
23Summary Common-sense Realism Scientific Realism Phenomenalism What you see is what is thereScientific RealismAtoms in the voidPhenomenalismTo be is to be perceived
24Question 2IF you believed in phenomenalism, what difference, if any, would it make to your practical life?
25Question 3How does the idea that we cannot know anything about what is the universe is like independent of our experience make you feel?
26Quote 2“If you can find something everyone agrees on, it’s wrong.” – Morris K. UdallHow can you apply this quote to society?What are the implications of this quote? Think about the material from yesterday and today…