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Sense Perception: Appearance and Reality 10/7. Agenda O Look at three factors for distinguishing appearance from reality. O Confirmation, Coherence, Independent.

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Presentation on theme: "Sense Perception: Appearance and Reality 10/7. Agenda O Look at three factors for distinguishing appearance from reality. O Confirmation, Coherence, Independent."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sense Perception: Appearance and Reality 10/7

2 Agenda O Look at three factors for distinguishing appearance from reality. O Confirmation, Coherence, Independent Testimony O Reflect on your own senses – shortcomings and strengths. O End Goal: Personal connection to the material – Do you trust knowledge gained from your senses?

3 Quote 1 O “Your appearance, attitude, and confidence define you as a person.” –Lorii Myers O Agree? Disagree? O What should define you as a person? O Can you fake/misinterpret appearance? Attitude? Confidence? O How do your senses show you appearance, attitude, and confidence?

4 Appearance v. Reality O Eye-witness testimony O Trust Senses to some extent? O How do we distinguish appearance from reality? O Confirmation O Coherence O Independent Testimony

5 Confirmation by Another Sense O Another sense can confirm what you are thinking. O If it looks like an apple, and tastes like an apple…then it is reasonable to assume it is an apple O SCIENCE: O Pencil half immersed in beaker of water, appears bent to the eye O Touch: Proves it is not bent

6 Question 1 O Do human beings have a dominant sense? Is the confirmation from a certain sense more valuable than another one?

7 Coherence O Does what you see/hear/taste/smell/touch fit in with your experiences of/in the world? O The idea of coherence is that what you are experiencing makes sense and it believable. O Drunk man sees a pig flying…the next morning he probably wont believe it.

8 Independent Testimony O Did several other people witness it to? O Eye-Witness Testimony – can more than one person back up your claim? O If many other people confirm what you experienced, then chances are you are correct O UNLESS you are involved in some crazy conspiracy theory!

9 Summarize O Senses are liable to error O We can correct our mistakes/confirm our observations using confirmation, coherence, and independent testimony. O Knowledge can be risky – less than certain.

10 Question 2 O Look back to your answer yesterday… How do you know if you can trust what a witness is saying? O Now, if you were a juror, what specific things would you need in order to believe eye- witness testimony? What would you change in your answer? What would you add to your answer?

11 Ultimate Reality 10/8

12 Agenda O Discuss quotes pertaining to appearance and reality O Look at different theories of reality O Common Sense Realism O Scientific Realism O Phenomenalism O END GOAL: Gain enough information to start evaluating your senses. Which of your senses is most reliable? Which theory do you believe in?

13 Quote 1 O “Believe nothing, no matter where you read it, who said it, no matter if I have said it, unless it agree with your own reason and your own common sense.” – Buddha O Is this quote always true? When is it? When is it not? O Whose word do you always trust? Anyone?

14 Perception vs. Reality O Pain, taste, color? O Is it all subjective? O Tree falls in the forest? O Does it really make a sound? O Tables in this classroom? O Are they still there at night?

15 Theories O Different theories between the relationship between perception and reality: O 1- Common-Sense Realism O 2- Scientific Realism O 3 - Phenomenalism

16 Common-Sense Realism O The way we perceive the world mirrors the way the world is.

17 Question 1 O Based on your notes, what are some arguments for and against common-sense realism? O Use your own words and examples.

18 Scientific Realism O The world exists as an independent reality, but it is very different from the way we perceive it.

19 Scientific Realism O Sir Arthur Eddington and the table. O Common Sense: A table is a certain color, is permanent, substantial, and useful O Scientific: “My scientific table is mostly emptiness. Sparsely scattered in that emptiness are numerous electric charges rushing about with great speed.”

20 Scientific Realism O Scientific Picture of Reality: comfortable and sensuous picture of our world is replaced with this colorless, soundless, odorless realm of atoms

21 Phenomenalism O Explands on empiricism (all knowledge must be based on experience) O Matter is the permanent possibility of sensation O “To be is to be perceived.” –George Berkeley

22 Phenomenalism O We cannot know what the world is like independent of what we experience O But it DOES exist O Beyond our experience of reality, nothing can be said. O We can only know the world from our perspective and we have no right to make assumptions and claims about what we haven’t experienced- humility

23 Summary O Common-sense Realism O What you see is what is there O Scientific Realism O Atoms in the void O Phenomenalism O To be is to be perceived

24 Question 2 O IF you believed in phenomenalism, what difference, if any, would it make to your practical life?

25 Question 3 O How does the idea that we cannot know anything about what is the universe is like independent of our experience make you feel?

26 Quote 2 O “If you can find something everyone agrees on, it’s wrong.” – Morris K. Udall O How can you apply this quote to society? O What are the implications of this quote? Think about the material from yesterday and today…

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