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Radiometric Corrections Atmospheric Corrections Atmospheric Effects on EMR.

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Presentation on theme: "Radiometric Corrections Atmospheric Corrections Atmospheric Effects on EMR."— Presentation transcript:

1 Radiometric Corrections Atmospheric Corrections Atmospheric Effects on EMR

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3 Kodiak Island, AK – Volcanic ash and clouds (MODIS image)

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6 Learning Objectives 1. What are the main ways that the atmosphere affects light traveling through it? 2. What are the different types of scattering, and what causes them? 3. How can we correct satellite data to remove the effects of scattering? 4. What causes differences in atmospheric transmittance? 5. How can we correct satellite data for differences in transmittance?

7 Learning Objectives (cont.) 7. When do we have to atmospherically correct imagery, and when does it not necessarily matter? 8. What is temporal compositing for cloud removal?

8 Atmospheric Effects EMR from the sun passes through the atmosphere TWICE before it reaches a satellite EMR from the sun passes through the atmosphere TWICE before it reaches a satellite The atmosphere is made up of molecules that interact with EMR The atmosphere is made up of molecules that interact with EMR Many (not all) atmospheric effects are wavelength dependent! Many (not all) atmospheric effects are wavelength dependent!

9 Atmospheric Effects What are the 2 primary effects of the atmosphere on EMR? What are the 2 primary effects of the atmosphere on EMR? EMR can also be refracted (bent) by the atmosphere (relevant for target location applications) EMR can also be refracted (bent) by the atmosphere (relevant for target location applications)

10 The Green Flash!

11 What factors affect the amount of radiance the satellite measures? Hint: What is the equation for at-satellite radiance?? Hint: What is the equation for at-satellite radiance??

12 Scattering Amount of atmospheric scattering is affected by: Amount of atmospheric scattering is affected by: Wavelength of EMR Wavelength of EMR Size of atmospheric particles Size of atmospheric particles Density of atmospheric particles Density of atmospheric particles Length of travel path (optical depth) Length of travel path (optical depth) Diagram from U. of Illinois Dept. of Atmos. Sci.

13 Atmospheric Scattering L λ = (Et m r/ ) + L p Where L p is called the path radiance (atmospheric scattering TOWARDS the satellite that increases measured radiance)

14 Top of Atmosphere Irradiance Surface Irradiance Path Radiance Radiance

15 Types of Scattering Rayleigh Rayleigh Affects blue wavelengths most strongly Affects blue wavelengths most strongly Blue sky during day Blue sky during day Contributes to red sunsets Contributes to red sunsets Mie Mie Caused by larger particles with diameter comparable to or larger than light wavelengths. Caused by larger particles with diameter comparable to or larger than light wavelengths. Not very wavelength dependent – e.g., white clouds Not very wavelength dependent – e.g., white clouds Nonselective Nonselective Not wavelength dependent Not wavelength dependent

16 What are atmospheric corrections? Atmospheric “corrections” are methods used to convert satellite DNs to numbers that represent radiance leaving the earth’s surface. Atmospheric “corrections” are methods used to convert satellite DNs to numbers that represent radiance leaving the earth’s surface. Required if you want to calculate surface reflectance. Required if you want to calculate surface reflectance.

17 Atmospheric Corrections So…if you want to remove path radiance from the satellite DNs, how would you do it? So…if you want to remove path radiance from the satellite DNs, how would you do it? (Again, what’s the equation for satellite radiance?)

18 Atmospheric Corrections (cont.) Each band must be corrected separately! Each band must be corrected separately! Green radiation is scattered by atmosphere 4x more than near-infrared Green radiation is scattered by atmosphere 4x more than near-infrared In general, atmospheric effects are much stronger in visible part of the spectrum than in the IR In general, atmospheric effects are much stronger in visible part of the spectrum than in the IR

19 Correcting for Path Radiance (Scattering) Techniques include Techniques include Dark pixel subtraction (a.k.a. the histogram minimum method) Dark pixel subtraction (a.k.a. the histogram minimum method) Regression of short wavelength band against long (unscattered) wavelength bands. Regression of short wavelength band against long (unscattered) wavelength bands.

20 Dark Pixel Subtraction Assume that the darkest objects in the image (the minimum value in the histogram) should have a DN of 0 (little or no reflectance) Assume that the darkest objects in the image (the minimum value in the histogram) should have a DN of 0 (little or no reflectance) Not always a correct assumption! Not always a correct assumption! Find the true minimum pixel value from each band (using histograms or dark areas) Find the true minimum pixel value from each band (using histograms or dark areas) Subtract that value from all of the pixels in the band Subtract that value from all of the pixels in the band

21 Histogram

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23 Regression Technique Assumes that long-wavelength bands are not scattered Assumes that long-wavelength bands are not scattered Plot the DNs from a shorter wavelength band on the x-axis against long wavelength DNs on the y-axis. Plot the DNs from a shorter wavelength band on the x-axis against long wavelength DNs on the y-axis. y-intercept should be at 0. If not, the difference is L p. y-intercept should be at 0. If not, the difference is L p.

24 Band 1 (for example) DN Band 7 (for example) DN Path radiance (L p )

25 Atmospheric Absorption (or transmittance) The atmosphere absorbs some light for all wavelengths The atmosphere absorbs some light for all wavelengths The atmosphere absorbs some wavelengths more than others due to specific atmospheric constituents (e.g., water vapor, CO 2, ozone) The atmosphere absorbs some wavelengths more than others due to specific atmospheric constituents (e.g., water vapor, CO 2, ozone)

26 Absorption Thermal IR – Greenhouse Effect Ozone Hole

27 Correcting for Atmospheric Transmittance Must correct separately for each wavelength (band) Must correct separately for each wavelength (band) Must either measure or make assumptions about optical depth, atmospheric density of various constituents, etc. Must either measure or make assumptions about optical depth, atmospheric density of various constituents, etc. Transmittance can vary spatially Transmittance can vary spatially Often not done because it is difficult. Often not done because it is difficult.

28 Atmospheric Measurement and Modeling Requires measurement of many atmospheric characteristics at different heights above the earth at same time as satellite overpass Requires measurement of many atmospheric characteristics at different heights above the earth at same time as satellite overpass There are “canned” atmospheric models that work fairly well. There are “canned” atmospheric models that work fairly well. Lowtran Lowtran Modtran Modtran ACORN ACORN

29 Reasons for Atmospheric Correction Atmospheric Correction is not always necessary! Atmospheric Correction is not always necessary! Single scene studies Single scene studies Atmospheric differences can be reduced by ratio based spectral indices Atmospheric differences can be reduced by ratio based spectral indices Often necessary when comparing multiple scenes Often necessary when comparing multiple scenes Scene matching (mosaics) Scene matching (mosaics) Change detection studies (sometimes) Change detection studies (sometimes) Applying classification statistics to multiple scenes Applying classification statistics to multiple scenes Always necessary if you need to calculate ground reflectance or compare satellite radiance to ground measurements Always necessary if you need to calculate ground reflectance or compare satellite radiance to ground measurements

30 Clouds! Most EMR wavelengths can’t penetrate clouds Most EMR wavelengths can’t penetrate clouds Big problem in remotely sensed imagery— tropics especially Big problem in remotely sensed imagery— tropics especially Temporal compositing can be used to get rid of clouds Temporal compositing can be used to get rid of clouds Cloud shadows are a problem too Cloud shadows are a problem too

31 The NE corner of the Laramie image that you’ve used in lab Clouds and cloud shadows!

32 Summary – Radiometric Corrections Change the DNs of pixels from the values that the satellite measured Change the DNs of pixels from the values that the satellite measured Usually done to remove radiance not directly from the target (e.g. path radiance) Usually done to remove radiance not directly from the target (e.g. path radiance) Should be considered carefully because you alter the original radiometry Should be considered carefully because you alter the original radiometry


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