2RefractionWhen light encounters a transparent or translucent medium, some light is reflected from the surface of the medium and some is transmitted through the medium.When light crosses a boundary between two mediums, it bends. A phenomenon called refraction.The bending of light, called refraction, was first studied by René Descartes and Willebrord Snell around the time of Kepler and Galileo (early 1600s).
3RefractionRefraction is the bending of light as it travels from one medium to another.The bending occurs because of a difference in the index of refraction of the mediums.Refraction occurs when the velocity of light changes.
4Angle of RefractionThe angle between the refracted ray and the normal is called the angle of refractionAngle of refraction
5RefractionLook at the figure above: Identical rays of light start in air and pass into three different mediums at the same angle.When light travels from air to glass it moves from material having a lower index of refraction to one with a higher index. In this case, the light is bent toward from the normal.
6Angle of RefractionWhen a light ray goes from a gas to a liquid or a solid, the light ray slows down and the angle of refraction is bent towards the normalWhen a light ray goes from a liquid or a solid to a gas, the light ray speeds up and the angle of refraction is bent away from the normal
7Dispersion of LightDispersion is the separation of white light into a spectrum of colors.A prism is not the only means of dispersion of light. A rainbow is a spectrum formed when sunlight is dispersed by water droplets in the atmosphere.Sunlight that falls on a water droplet and is refracted. Since each color has a difference wavelength, it is refracted at a slightly different angle.Sometimes a second rainbow is observed, this occurs when light rays are reflected twice inside a water droplet.
9Total Internal Reflection If the angle of incidence is great enough, the angle of refraction will be so large, that light will not exit the medium.Instead, it will be reflected.This is known as total internal reflection.The minimum angle of incidence that will cause this is known as the critical angle
10Total Internal Reflection Total internal reflection causes some curious effects.Suppose that you are looking up at the surface from underwater in a calm pool.You might see an upside-down reflection of a nearby underwater object or a reflection of the bottom of the pool itself.The surface of the water acts like a mirror.
11Total Internal Reflection Likewise, when you are standing on the side of a pool, it is possible for things below the surface of the water to not be visible to you.When a swimmer is underwater, near the surface, and on the opposite side of the pool from you, you might not see him or her.This is because the light from his or her body does not transmit from the water into the air, but is reflected.
12Fiber Optics An Application of Total Internal Reflection Optical fibers are an important technical application of total internal reflection.The light traveling through the transparent fiber always hits the internal boundary of the optical fiber at an angle greater than the critical angle, so all of the light is reflected and none of the light is transmitted through the boundary.Thus, the light maintains its intensity over the distance of the fiber.
13MiragesOn a hot summer day, as you drive down a road, you see what appears to be the reflection of an oncoming car in a pool of water. The pool, however, disappears as you approach it.The mirage is the result of the Sun heating the road. The hot road heats the air above it and produces a thermal layering of air that causes light traveling toward the road to gradually bend upward.This makes the light appear to be coming from a reflection in a pool.
15LensesA Lens is a piece of transparent material, such as glass or plastic, which is used to focus light and form an image.A convex lens is thicker in the centerA concave lens is thicker on the outsideAn achromatic lens is a system of two or more lenses, such as a convex lens with a concave lens, that have different indices of refraction
16LensesLenses are found in telescopes, microscopes, magnifying glasses, eyeglasses, and the human eye
17Focal PointThe focal point of a lens is the point in space where parallel light rays meet after passing through the lens.Symbol for the focal point is f
18Convex LensesWhen rays of light pass through a Convex lens (thicker in the middle), they are bent inwards.Focal point is on the opposite side of the lens as the incoming light rays.A Convex lens forms a real image that is inverted and larger than your object.Often referred to as a converging lens
19Concave LensesWhen rays of light pass through a Concave lens (thicker on the outside), they are bent outwards.Focal point is on the same side of the lens as the incoming light rays.Concave lens forms a virtual imageOften referred to as a diverging lens
22Drawing Ray Diagrams - Convex Lens A ray diagram is the best way to understand what type of image is formed by a lens.There are three rays that we draw that follow the rules of how light rays are bent by the lens:The first ray passes through the center of the lens is not deflected at all.The second ray travels parallel to the axis and passes through the far focal point.The third ray passes through the near focal point emerges parallel to the axis.The image is formed where all three rays converge. It is inverted
24Thin Lens ModelThe thin lens model is an assumption is made that all refractions occurs at a plane, called the principal plane that passes through the center of the lens.All lenses we will discuss in this chapter use the thin lens model.The thin lens equation relates the focal length of a spherical thin lens, the object position, and the image position
25Variables for Thin Lens Equation focal length, fDistance between the focal point and the lensimage distance, diDistance image is from the lensobject distance, doDistance object is from the lens
26Thin-lens equation Where: f – focal length di – image distance do – object distance
27Practice # 1When an object is placed 0.03 m in front of a converging lens, a real image is formed 0.06 m in back of the lens. Find the focal length of the lensGiven:do = 0.03 mdi = 0.06 mUnknown:f = ?Using the thin lens equation Ans: 0.02 m
28Practice # 2An object is placed 0.25 m in front of a converging lens of focal length 0.09 m. Find the image distance.Given:do =f =Unknown:di = ?
29Practice # 3An object placed 0.30 m from a converging lens. The focal length of the lens is 0.11 m. Calculate the image distanceGiven:do =f =Unknown:di =
38Examples and uses of lenses Eyeglasses and contact lensesThe eyeglasses or contact lenses help refract light onto the retina of the eyeMagnifying glassA magnifying glass increases the size of an object