2Spectroscopy Spectral analysis provides information about an object’s… a. Outer layer chemical composition of stars.b. Temperature of starsc. Movement of stars, if the distance between the star and the Earth is increasing or decreasing. (Doppler Effect – Red Shift, Blue Shift)
3Spectroscopy e. Presence of magnetic fields d. Pressure of a stare. Presence of magnetic fieldsf. Condition of the gases in the starg. Size of the star
4SpectroscopeSpectroscope – the tool used to separate starlight into its colors.Is used for spectral analysis of stars.
5Visible LightWhen visible light (white light) is passed through a prism a continuous spectrum is formed. Each color has a different wavelength. As a result each color is refracted (bent) a different amount.Elements radiate light into specific wavelength combinations that form banding patterns “fingerprints.”
6Visible Light Rays of Sunlight Violet Indigo Blue Green Yellow Orange Ray bent most- shortest wavelengthSpectrum of ColorsRays of SunlightVioletIndigoBlueGreenYellowOrangeRedRay bent least- longest wavelength
7Continuous SpectrumUnbroken band of colors – shows that its source is sending out light of all visible wavelengths.
8Continuous Spectrum Sources - glowing solid, hot filament of light - glowing liquid, molten iron- hot compressed gases deep inside a starExample – incandescent light bulb
9Bright Line Spectrum (Emission Spectrum) An unevenly spaced series of lines of different colors and brightness.The bright lines show the source is emitting light in certain wavelengths.I I I I I I I I I
10Bright Line Spectrum (Emission Spectrum) Each element has its own unique bright-line spectrum.Clouds of hot gas around young stars produce emission lines.Example – Gas TubesI I I I I I I I I
11Dark-Line Spectrum (Absorption Spectrum) A continuous spectrum with dark lines where light is absorbed.These lines are called Fraunhofer Lines.I I I I I I I I
12Dark-Line Spectrum (Absorption Spectrum) The dark lines are in the exact same spot as the same element in a bright-line spectrum.Forms when light passes through a cooler gas. The gas absorbs the same wavelengths, as it would give off if heated. Example – Star.I I I I I I I I
13Dark-Line Spectrum (Absorption Spectrum) The position of the dark lines is used to identify the elements in the star.By looking at the dark-line spectrum of the sun more that 80 elements have been identified.Example – SunI I I I I I I I