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Beyond Modern 1920s – De Stijl International Style Post-war design Neo-modernism.

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Presentation on theme: "Beyond Modern 1920s – De Stijl International Style Post-war design Neo-modernism."— Presentation transcript:

1 Beyond Modern 1920s – De Stijl International Style Post-war design Neo-modernism

2 De Stijl ( ) 1.Painting is an autonomous interworking of form, surface and color 2.Sought to eliminate all traces of the emotional and personal in art 3.Neo-plasticism – return design to its most primal, basic elements (color and line)

3 De Stijl ( ) Piet Mondrian – artist Gerrit Reitveld – architect Theo van Doesburg – graphic designer

4 Composition with Red, Yellow and Blue, Mondrian, 1930 about nothing more than line & color white voids of space planes of color structure—black lines

5 Red, Yellow, Blue Chair, Gerrit Rietveld, 1917 (Painted in 1921) Beechwood and plywood construction originally black & white black is structure/white is space color starts to communicate function yellow represents wood itself

6 Berlin Chair, Gerrit Rietveld, 1923 black & white—positive & negative exploring relationship between opposites

7 Theo Van Doesburg Mondrian—too complex; doesn’t like direction, leaves group

8 Zig Zag Chair, Gerrit Rietveld, 1934 cantilevered chair—small supports plywood starting to explore

9 began using diagonals in axonometric form

10 Schroeder House, Gerrit Rietveld, 1924, Utrecht hired Rietveld because she believed structure would help to mold her children in their formative years

11 liked the idea of putting his building in with all the old, classical homes of the area—for more of a contrast

12 color was only used as an accent balance between linear black components and planar white surface

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14 moveable walls—solving problems of open floor plans

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16 like taking one of Mondrian’s paintings & making it 3D—Rietveld used color to define space

17 Berlin Chair

18 The International Style modern movement eventually becomes the international style not synonymous—modernists were too cold; evolved to international style something anyone across the globe could appreciate

19 Scandanavian Modernism Alvar Aalto ( )

20 Viipuri Municipal Library, Alvar Aalto, Viipuri, Russia undulating ceiling very open—lots of natural light

21 loved wood—organic nature of ceiling responds to organic nature of wood

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23 Chair 68, Stool 60, Viipuri Library, c. 1932, birch bentwood is used again—for its warmth very simply made meant to be mass produced

24 Paimio Sanitorium, Alvar Aalto, Paimio, Finland won architectural competition for design in 1929

25 Paimio Scroll Chair, bent laminated and solid birch frame with lacquered bent plywood seat sled base— meant to moveable not cantilevered looks a little more inviting and comfortable than some all furniture designed by Aalto & wife

26 Lounge Chair #43, 1936, bent laminated and solid birch frame with textile webbing

27 Charles and Ray Eames war takes all materials—really have to be innovative MoMA creates competitions to promote furniture design/development turn away from the austerity of Bauhaus and create “post war design”—war makes design stop in Europe and turn to U.S. for first time

28 Charles Eames and Eero Saarinen LCW, 1945 Organic Design in Home Furnishings – 1940 (exhibition/competition) appreciate idea of bentwood—but they bend it in all 3 dimensions conforms to body 1 st version—winning design

29 Organic Design in Home Furnishings – 1940 (exhibition/competition) Charles Eames and Eero Saarinen LCM, 1946 shell—anything user touches—seat & back substructure & legs— reduced to a minimum 2 nd version—winning design

30 Eames Lounge Chair & Ottoman, 1956 highly regarded as status symbol—even more comfortable & soft rosewood ply & leather seat—shell cast aluminum base—structure

31 follows idea of shell & structure shell structure

32 Eames House, Case Study House #8— Santa Monica, CA Charles met Ray at school and married interested in creating housing that was easy & cheap to build

33 Eames House, Case Study House #8— Santa Monica, CA

34 general structure metal truss studio

35 corrugated metal roof exposed as texture loved to collect things—very eclectic simple planar geometry strong interest in Asian culture

36 can see impact of glass in design—looking out huge cliff over the ocean

37 textile caterpillar—piece of artwork collection

38 topped stairs with skylight to create a shaft of light

39 Florence Knoll (1917- )

40 Chromed base. Hardwood frame covered with expanded foam. Cushions in foam at variable density - not removable 10mm thick glass on a triple chrome plated bar stock steel.

41 Knoll tables & sofa—but who designed the chairs?—success lies in ability to “snatch up” popular pieces of furniture for manufacture

42 interior designer in her own right—influenced heavily by Eames’

43 connection with the De Stijl movement—sense of clear geometry, color & planes

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45 most famous commission—CBS headquarters

46 Richard Neutra ( ) from Europe but comes to U.S. created a modern regionalism for Southern California—”California Style” relative to modernism combined a light metal frame with a stucco finish creates light, effortless appearance

47 tries to connect you to the outside—view, reflecting pond, wood

48 abstraction of nature architecture extends & integrates with nature interiors are as if “you are on stage”

49 furniture becomes a little more scultpural

50 furniture not placed against walls—walls become view fireplace on one wall of one material becomes popular

51 created spaces where you can move in and out seamlessly

52 Philip Johnson ( ) “All architecture is shelter, all great architecture is the design of space that contains, cuddles, exalts, or stimulates the persons in that space.”

53 Glass House, Philip Johnson, New Caanan, CT (1949) all about technology—the ability to have a glass house bathroom

54 architecture is very diminished

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56 living/dining area—using textiles to delineate space selected a suite of Mies van der Rohe’s furniture

57 fine art pieces used intermittently

58 bedroom & bathroom

59 guest house for privacy—a study in opposites

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61 1950s post WWII prosperity – consumerism – hit an all time high suburban utopia boom in home ownership

62 1950s clean lines and simplicity mass produced furniture softer, warmer forms (Aalto, Eames) good design derived from technology

63 Atomic Age Tulip Furniture named for the dropping of the atomic bomb Eero Saarinen—1957 just one leg—wanted to clear up the “slum” of legs one leg make piece appear more weightless

64 new technologies help to create new aesthetic—unbroken line/molded furniture flared, circular aluminum base

65 Chickenwire Chair Harry Bertoia —worked for Knoll—sculptor molded furniture—mostly made of air welded steel rods—visually light

66 eventually padded entire front

67 Noguchi Table, 1950s Isamu Noguchi designed for Herman Miller plate glass top—freeform, sculpted bases creates a sense of weightlessness

68 Egg Chair Arne Jacobsen single aluminum base usually leather upholstery etiquette becoming very informal

69 1960s youth emerged as a strong market force social taboos/traditions came under attack prosperity in western economies jet travel and the space race (adventure) 1940s—recovering from war 1950s—”domestic bliss”

70 Globe Chair, Eero Aarnio, 1960 very casual

71 designer, Eero Aarnio

72 somewhat similar to streamlined moderne

73 t.v. design informed by space suit

74 Model 400, Roger Tallon, 1964 polished aluminum frame with latex-foam seating reflective nature of polished aluminum makes support “blend” into surroundings

75 Ribbon Chair, Pierre Paulin, 1966 bent, tubular metal frame tensioned rubber seat over top filled with latex foam cushion fabric cover

76 Bouloum Chair, Oliver Mourgue, 1968 human form clearly dictating furniture

77 Blow Chair, by De Pas, D'urbino, Lomazzi & Scolari in 1967 first mass produced inflatable chair more of a youth culture statement utilizes new materials & technology questioned presumed permanence associated with furniture emphasized disposability

78 Anatomical easy-chair envelope containing highly resistant expanded polystyrene pellets cover in Nailpelle, Lancio or leather. Sacco, Gatti, Paolini, Teodoro, 1969

79 1960's Kartell Storage Unit original storage container element (model 4970) designed by Anna Castelli Ferrieri for Kartell Italy c1967 constructed from white ABS plastic consists of two interlocking units— the lower one on casters

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81 Vanna Venturi House, Robert Venturi, 1964, Chestnut Hill, PA does not follow classical theory uses a version of modern ideals—in opposing manner arch large void

82 led to the development of postmodernism in architecture during the 1970s

83 Venturi’s theories advocate the use of historical allusion and symbolism, while rejecting the perceived sterility of orthodox modern buildings

84 1970s energy crisis of 1973 petroleum by-products increase in price –plastic becomes too expensive socially responsible design approach environmental and economic concerns

85 low-income housing for predominantly African American consists of story apartment buildings on a 57 acre site totaling 2,870 apartments Pruitt-Igoe, St. Louis Missouri

86 shortly after its completion, living conditions began to decay by the late 1960s, the extreme poverty, crime, and segregation brought the complex a great deal of infamy Pruitt-Igoe

87 demolished within 20 years of completion critics have cited the failure as an example of how planned urban communities often fail designed as an attempt to emulate the public housing projects in NYC, but with little regard for the vast difference in economies and population distributions in the two cities claimed to mark the day that “modern architecture died”

88 Wiggle Chair, Frank Gehry, 1972 exploration in new materials—corrugated, laminated cardboard shows that cardboard can look elegant & has remarkable strength and resilience cantilevered really heavy; not very moveable

89 Little Beaver Chair, Frank Gehry, 1980

90 1970s interior by Joe Columbo exhibition vignette shows that social taboos becoming even less formal

91 high tech architecture incorporates elements of high- tech industry and technology into building design Pompidou Center, Rogers and Piano, 1977, Paris

92 mechanical systems exposed and color coded

93 Postmodernism Piazza d’Italia, Charles Moore, 1976, New Orleans take classical references and do whatever you want with them— should not be held to rigid examples

94 color is used for the sake of color—doesn’t look as if it is about form; more about plane

95 1980s caricature of classical details breaking of the “rules” color for the sake of color the end of “drab rationalism”

96 Portland Building, Michael Graves, 1980, Portland postmodernism sometimes referred to as a caricature of classical features

97 criticized not only by design community, but by Portlanders as well windows bevel in—no regard to Portland weather workers in building have high incidence of sickness

98 Chippendale and Queen Anne, Robert Venturi, 1984 (silk screen printed, molded plywood) postmodernism sometimes referred to as a caricature of classical features

99 MEMPHIS was a Milan-based collective of young furniture and product designers—debuted in 1981 & led by Ettore Sottsass after its 1981 debut, Memphis dominated the early 1980s design scene with its post-modernist style

100 Kandinsky Sofa, Sottsass, 1979 lacquered wood and textile “acting out” against neutrals—attack it with color, pattern & form

101 Carlton (name of piece), Sottsass (designer), 1981 bookcase/shelving unit

102 Ginza Robot, Umeda, c laminates become all the rage completely dishonest in use of materials

103 First Chair, de Lucchi, c Memphis style split the design world caused a media sensation after years of drab rationalism

104 Kristall End Table, de Lucchi, c. 1980

105 Ettore Sottsass: 1980's Memphis Design Modern Tahiti Lamp polychrome enameled metal "duck" with pivoting head mounted on a black and white confetti-patterned laminate base

106 1990s self-contained structures new age of architects using logarithmic equations to design human form now a “lab rat”

107 A to Z line Andrea Zittel; self-contained structures furniture can almost fold into a box when it is time to move

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111 Aronoff Center of Design, (DAAP Building, University of Cincinnati, Peter Eisenman, 1996 part of the new age of architects using logarithmic equations to design

112 four stories tall

113 looks like building is slipping…

114 …like it is not stable “spine” connects three different buildings

115 interiors mimic exterior haphazard nature columns don’t seem to support large mass

116 geometries collide violently

117 almost intentionally making occupants feel uncomfortable human form is now nothing more than a “lab rat”— compare to age of the Vitruvian man angles sometimes even appear to decapitate users

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121 Aeron Chair, Donald Chadwick and William Stumpf, 1992 combines distinctive looks with pioneering ergonomics adapts naturally and adjusts precisely to fit people of all sizes and postures doing all kinds of activities, all day long recycled aluminum and fiberglass reinforced polyester frame and base with polyester mesh seat and back


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