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Metal Forming Operations Rolling: makes sheet metal (hot or cold) Forging: makes strong solid parts (hot or cold ) Kalpakjian.

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Presentation on theme: "Metal Forming Operations Rolling: makes sheet metal (hot or cold) Forging: makes strong solid parts (hot or cold ) Kalpakjian."— Presentation transcript:

1 Metal Forming Operations Rolling: makes sheet metal (hot or cold) Forging: makes strong solid parts (hot or cold ) Kalpakjian

2 Wire drawing: Makes strong small dia. wire ( hot or cold) Extrusion: makes complex cross-sections from soft metals and plastics (hot) Kalpakjian

3 Bending: (2D) Bend sheet metal about single axis ( hot or cold) Deep drawing (3D) Makes “cups” from sheet metal, for mass production. (cold) Kalpakjian

4 Spinning: Makes “cups” from sheet metal, for lower production. (cold) Roll forming (Hot): Moves bulk metal, makes I-beams Kalpakjian Roll forming (Cold): Bends sheetmetal into complex cross-sections

5 Shearing: Cut or punch sheetmetal ( hot or cold) Kalpakjian

6 ASM Metals Handbook Vol.9 Bralla Forming Oriented flowlines decrease fracture risk from grain boundaries, improve strength along flow direction. (Directional properties). Especially seen in: -Forging -Rolling -Drawing Cracks tend to start where grain boundaries intersect surface. Forging minimizes these.

7 Thread-rolling for bolts: Rolled threads stronger than machined (and less expensive) Kalpakjian

8 Directional Properties in Rolling Oriented flowlines: -Less ductility when bent in one direction -More ductility when bent in the other Kalpakjian

9 Slab Production: Hot Rolling Color & Temp

10 Progressive Hot Rolling: smaller, uniform grains Kalpakjian

11 Hot Working: Forging Paul Berenson, T.Green, WIT Open Die Forging

12 Hydraulic pressMechanical press with an eccentric drive: faster Slow but high force and low cost Forging Presses Kalpakjian Erie Press

13 Forging Presses Knuckle-joint pressScrew pressGravity drop hammer: Simplest Kalpakjian

14 Forging: Closed Die Forging Kalpakjian

15 Forging: Heat Loss Metal near die surfaces are coolest, flow less erlangen.de

16 Kalpakjian Upset Forging ( hot or cold) Bolt manufacture

17 Roll Forming (hot): I-beams Kalpakjian Lunchtime on a Crossbeam, Unknown,

18 Extrusion (hot or cold ): Typ.: Alum., soft metals With special lubes: steels ~Any cross-section Inexpensive dies Good finish T.Green, WIT en.wikipedia.org

19 Extrusion: Hollow cross-sections: Use Mandrels Kalpakjian

20 Mannesmann Process: Piercing (Hot) Seamless pipe, tube Kalpakjian

21 Cold-Working (vs. Hot): Products: Better tolerances Much better surface finish Elongated (and smaller) grains Turns inexpensive alloys into stronger but less ductile products Sheetmetal lends itself to cold working, not hot working Processes: Higher processing forces Larger and stronger machinery Less ductility available Lower energy use

22 Cold Rolling: Sheetmetal production Kalpakjian finance.pipex.com

23 Cold Rolling: Sheetmetal production Cluster rolls support smaller contacting rolls

24 Cold Rolling: Sheetmetal production Residual Stresses may lead to warping after bar is machined Large reduction Small reduction Kalpakjian

25 Roll Forming of Sheetmetal (cold) Kalpakjian

26 Roll Forming of sheetmetal

27 Punching & Blanking of Sheetmetal Punching (Scrap) Blanking (Saved: a “blank”) Punch Die Stripper plate T.Green, WIT

28 Punching of Sheetmetal Kalpakjian

29 Blanking of Sheetmetal: Efficient Nesting of Blanks Kalpakjian

30 Sheetmetal: Bending Kalpakjian Springback:

31 Sheetmetal: Minimum Bend Radius Kalpakjian Tight radius bends (folds) require metal with ~40% ductility

32 Kalpakjian Bending of Sheetmetal Use notches to avoid tearing and wrinkling in right-angle bends

33 Press Brakes: For lower production volumes foot long tons Bending of Sheetmetal

34 Bending: Press-Brake Operations Kalpakjian

35 For large quantities, forging and die casting are more economical. Sand casting is the more economical process for fewer than about 20,000 pieces. Relative Unit Costs of a Small Connecting Rod Kalpakjian

36 Deep Drawing (cold, for sheetmetal) - Punch draws blank into die - Metal is supported on both sides to avoid wrinkling - Hold-down pressure (blankholder force) is primary process variable if too high: tearing if too low: wrinkling Kalpakjian

37 Deep Drawing “Draw beads” may be used to control metal flow Kalpakjian

38 Spinning Ideal for Lower production volumes Large parts Inexpensive tooling

39 Spinning videos

40 Cost comparison: manufacturing a round sheet-metal container by spinning and deep drawing. For small quantities, spinning is more economical. Kalpakjian

41 Finite Element Simulations Predict and minimize tearing and wrinkling locations nsmwww.eng.ohio-state.edu tmku209.ctw.utwente.nl

42 Progressive Stamping Dies Common method to handle complex parts

43 Tube-drawing DOM: Drawn Over Mandrel Tubing Seamless Thin wall, tight tolerance, strong Kalpakjian Malicky “Floating plug”

44 Bicycles: Butted DOM tubing Increased wall thickness at ends Reinforces high stress points materials.npl.co.uk

45 Diego Rivera, Detroit Industry, Detroit Institute of Art

46 References Kalpakjian: Bralla: James G. Bralla, Design for Manufacturing Handbook, McGraw- Hill, 2nd Edition. In:


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