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Molecular Models Activity KeysKeys Molecular Model's Activity

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Presentation on theme: "Molecular Models Activity KeysKeys Molecular Model's Activity"— Presentation transcript:

1 Molecular Models Activity KeysKeys Molecular Model's Activity

2 Molecular Models Activity ammonia hydrogen monochloride trichloromethane urea propane butane nitrogen triiodidenitrogen triiodide (video)video carbon tetrachloride methane water ethane ethyne dihydrogen monosulfide carbon dioxide supplies

3 Bonding and Shape of Molecules Number of Bonds Number of Unshared Pairs ShapeExamples Linear Trigonal planar Tetrahedral Pyramidal Bent BeCl 2 BF 3 CH 4, SiCl 4 NH 3, PCl 3 H 2 O, H 2 S, SCl 2 -Be- B C N : O : : Covalent Structure

4 Lewis Structures 1) Count up total number of valence electrons 2) Connect all atoms with single bonds - “multiple” atoms usually on outside - “single” atoms usually in center; C always in center, H always on outside. 3) Complete octets on exterior atoms (not H, though) 4) Check - valence electrons match with Step 1 - all atoms (except H) have an octet;if not, try multiple bonds - any extra electrons?Put on central atom - no unpaired electrons (free radicals) Gilbert Lewis

5 Carbon tetrachloride CCl CCl 4 C o Cl Carbon tetrachloride – “carbon tet” had been used as dry cleaning solvent because of its extreme non-polarity. Tetrahedral geometry

6 Methane CH H H H C o H H H H Methane –The first member of the paraffin (alkane) hydrocarbons series. a.k.a. (marsh gas, CH 4 ). Tetrahedral geometry

7 Water.. HH O Bent geometry SO 2  (-)  (+) Polar molecule

8 Ethane C H CH H H HH space-filling molecule ball-and-stick Lewis dot notation C2H4C2H4 molecular formula C = 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2

9 Ethane C H CH H H HH space-filling molecule ball-and-stick Lewis dot notation C2H6C2H6 molecular formula

10 Ethyne CCHHCCHH No octet Stable octet 6 electrons = triple bond CCHH C2H2C2H2 CCHH each C “feels” 6 electrons each C “feels” 7 carbons Ethyne – a.k.a. “acetylene”

11 Dihydrogen monosulfide.. HH S Bent SO 2

12 Carbon dioxide OO C Linear geometry CO O CO 2 CO O

13 Ammonia N HH H N 107 o H H H.. NH 3.. H H H N Trigonal Pyramidal geometry N HH H

14 H Amino Acids – Functional Groups AmineCarboxylic AcidBase Pair NH 2 1- R- COOH NH 3 NH 2 1- NH 4 1+ amineammoniaammonium ion N H H H : N H H H H : 1+ N H H : 1- : H+H+ lose H + H+H+ +

15 Hydrogen monochloride HCl HCl HCl  (-)  (+) HCl Polar molecule HCl(g) + H 2 O(l)  HCl(aq) hydrogen chloride water hydrochloric acid

16 Trichloromethane CCl H CHCl 3 C o H Cl C H  (-)  (+) Polar molecule Tetrahedral geometry

17 Urea C O N H H N H H C O N H H N H H CO(NH 2 ) 2 NOT “di-urea” Urea – The first organic compound to be synthesized (Wohler, 1828).

18 Propane C H CH H C H H HHH C C C H H H H H H H H C3H8C3H8

19 Butane C H CH H C H CH H HHHH H - C - C - C - C - H H H C 4 H 10 C C C H H H H H H H H C H H

20 Nitrogen triiodide N II I N 107 o I I I.. NI 3 Trigonal Pyramidal geometry Video clip: (slow motion) detonation of N I 3

21 Supplies  15 black(carbon)  8 green(chlorine and iodine)  1 yellow(sulfur)  4 blue(oxygen)  4 red(nitrogen)  42 hydrogen(hydrogen)  67 bonds(bonds)

22 C Cl I S O N H C C H HH H CO O S HH CCHH C H H CCl 4 CH 4 CO 2 C2H2C2H2 HCl CHCl 3 SH 2

23 C H CH H C H CH H HHHH C H CH H C H H HHH N HH H N II I

24 Decomposition of Nitrogen Triiodide

25

26 2 NI 3 (s) N 2 (g) + 3 I 2 (g) NI 3 I2I2 N2N2

27 C o H H H H N 107 o H H H.. O o H H.. CH 4, methaneNH 3, ammoniaH 2 O, water.. O O O lone pair electrons O OO O 3, ozone

28 .. The VSEPR Model OO C Linear The Shapes of Some Simple AB n Molecules OO S Bent OO S O Trigonal planar F F F N Trigonal pyramidal T-shapedSquare planar FF Cl F F F Xe FF F F F P F F Trigonal bipyramidal Octahedral F F F S F F F AB 6 SO 2 Brown, LeMay, Bursten, Chemistry The Central Science, 2000, page 305

29 KEYS - Nomenclature Objectives Worksheet - binary cmpds: single charge cation binary cmpds: single charge cationbinary cmpds: single charge cation Worksheet - ions in chemical formulas ions in chemical formulasions in chemical formulas Worksheet - ionic cmpds: polyatomic ions w multiple-charge cation ionic cmpds: polyatomic ions w multiple-charge cationionic cmpds: polyatomic ions w multiple-charge cation Worksheet - ionic formulas (binary, polyatomic, transition) ionic formulas (binary, polyatomic, transition)ionic formulas (binary, polyatomic, transition) Worksheet – ionic cmpds: traditional system of nomenclature ionic cmpds: traditional system of nomenclatureionic cmpds: traditional system of nomenclature Worksheet - covalent binary cmpds: non-metal - non-metal covalent binary cmpds: non-metal - non-metalcovalent binary cmpds: non-metal - non-metal Worksheet - ionic cmpds: polyatomic ions ionic cmpds: polyatomic ionsionic cmpds: polyatomic ions Worksheet - ionic binary cmpds: multiple charge cation ionic binary cmpds: multiple charge cationionic binary cmpds: multiple charge cation (general) Outline (general) Outline Worksheet - oxidation numbers and ionic cmpds oxidation numbers and ionic cmpdsoxidation numbers and ionic cmpds Worksheet - names and formulas of cmpds names and formulas of cmpdsnames and formulas of cmpds Worksheet - empirical and molecular empirical and molecularempirical and molecular Worksheet - vocab (bonding) vocab (bonding)vocab (bonding) Activity – bonding PP bonding PPbonding PP Activity - molecular models activity - mole pattern Worksheet - errors in chemical formulas and nomenclature errors in chemical formulas and nomenclatureerrors in chemical formulas and nomenclature Worksheet - binary compounds binary compoundsbinary compounds Worksheet - ions in chemical compounds ions in chemical compoundsions in chemical compounds Textbook - questions questions

30 Resources - Nomenclature Objectives WorksheetWorksheet - binary cmpds: single charge cation Worksheet Worksheet - ions in chemical formulas Worksheet Worksheet - ionic cmpds: polyatomic ions w multiple-charge cation Worksheet Worksheet - ionic formulas (binary, polyatomic, transition) Worksheet Worksheet - traditional system of nomenclature Worksheet Worksheet - covalent binary cmpds: non-metal - non-metal Worksheet Worksheet - ionic cmpds: polyatomic ions Worksheet (general) Outline (general)general Outlinegeneral WorksheetWorksheet - empirical and molecular Worksheet Worksheet - vocab (bonding) Worksheet ActivityActivity - bonding pieces bondingpieces Activitybondingpieces ActivityActivity - molecular models Activity Activity - mole pattern Activity WorksheetWorksheet - binary compounds Worksheet Worksheet - ions in chemical compounds Worksheet TextbookTextbook - questions Textbook WorksheetWorksheet - ionic binary cmpds: multiple charge cation Worksheet WorksheetWorksheet - oxidation numbers and ionic cmpds Worksheet Worksheet - names and formulas of cmpds Worksheet Worksheet - errors in chemical formulas and nomenclature Worksheet General Chemistry PP


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