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1.  Remember that oil does not dissolve in water, but does like to stick to other oils.  Many marine organisms such as birds and otters have natural.

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Presentation on theme: "1.  Remember that oil does not dissolve in water, but does like to stick to other oils.  Many marine organisms such as birds and otters have natural."— Presentation transcript:

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2  Remember that oil does not dissolve in water, but does like to stick to other oils.  Many marine organisms such as birds and otters have natural oils on their feathers/fur.  Crude oil will dissolve in this natural oil, coating the organism. CLICK THIS FOR VIDEO

3  Oil can also get in the organisms eyes, lungs, and stomach.  Ingestion or inhalation of oil can have profound effects on both human and marine life.  Remember that oil does not dissolve in water, but does like to stick to other oils.  Many marine organisms such as birds and otters have natural oils on their feathers/fur.  Crude oil will dissolve in this natural oil, coating the organism.

4  Crude oil is composed of multiple types of hyrocarbons.  These hydrocarbons vary in size and state of matter. Some may be liquid others gaseous.  These molecules can be very toxic to cells. (2)

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6  Benzene (and other components of oil) are non- polar.  They easily dissolve in the phospholipids of cell membranes.  These molecules can dissolve membranes, destroying cells. (2) Benzene is fairly stable and therefore persistent in the environment. (5) 4

7  Upon inhalation, it can induce:  Neurological effects (ie. loss of consciousness and convulsions)  Dizziness, drowsiness, vomiting.  Skin, eye and lung irritation (even blisters).  Immunologic complications. (6)  Benzene can also depress bone marrow functioning in humans.  This leads to reduces blood cell counts.  It may be linked to forms of leukemia. (7)

8  Because of its toxicity, oil can effect all marine life at every level of the food chain.  Small single celled organisms like phytoplankton may become toxic due to exposure.  These or the oil itself may be eaten by other organisms (ie. fish).  The toxic components of oil can then biomagnify as they move up the food chain.

9  Not only are organisms exposed to the oil itself, they are consuming the toxins! 8

10 How does it get there? Why is it so bad?  Remember that oil is persistent and the components vary in size.  This is what makes it so difficult to contain and clean.  Ocean currents, type of shoreline, weather conditions, depth of spill and type of oil all have an effect on how bad it will be.

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12  Feb 2001 – Deepwater Horizon arrives in the Gulf of Mexico.  April 20, 2010 – an explosion and resulting fire kills 11 people and injures 17.  April 22, 2010 – the rig sinks and first signs of an oil slick begin to appear.  April 25, 2010 – underwater sensing equipment suggest that 1,000 barrels per day are leaking into the Gulf of Mexico. This estimate increased to 5,000 bpd by the 28 th. (10) 9

13 Response  Initial response was to put out fires and find missing workers.  Secondary response was to stop oil from a bent and leaking valve 5,000 feet deep.  Tried plugging with mud  Tried putting a cement hat on the well.  Tried robots with diamond-blade saws to cut the bent valve and recap.  Tried a relief well. 9

14 Finally, on July 15, 2010, the well was capped. Relief wells were finished to reduce pressure. Total spill million barrels (11) 1 barrel = 42 gallons 4.9 million barrels = 2.06 billion gallons Put into perspective 1 Olympic swimming pool = 660,430 gallons Deepwater Horizon spill = 3,116 Olympic pools

15 Now that the oil is spilled. How do we clean it?  Dispersants  Sorbents  Booms  Skimmers  Pumps  Tow outside environment Tow outside environment Tow outside environment 11

16  Working in pairs, you will each research and present a different cleanup technique.  You will have about minutes to prepare your presentation.  We will present tomorrow.

17 1. Image: Encyclopedia of the Earth. Accessed on 12/11/2010 from 2. Reinhardt, D. Crude Environmental Oil – Potential Hazard to Life and Living Organisms. (2010). The Science Super School Online. Accessed on 12/2/2010 from spills-mdash-biological-medical-chemical-dangers.html 3. Image: Fourwinds10.com. Accessed on 12/11/2010 from 4. Image: Wikipedia. Accessed on 12/11/2010 from 5. Committee on Oil in the Sea: Inputs, Fates, and Effects, National Research Council. Oil in the Sea III: Inputs, Fates, and Effects. (2003). The National Acadamies Press. ISBN-10: Accessed on 12/2/2010 from 6. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Toxicological Profile for Benzene - Draft. (1997). U.S. Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA. 7. Snyder, R and CC Hedli. An Overview of Benzene Metabolism. Environmental Health Perspectives. (1996) Vol 104, Supplement 6. Accessed on 12/2/2010 from 8. Image: Government of Alberta Water Quality Information. Accessed on 12/12/2010 from 9. Image: Wikipedia Deepwater Horizon. Accessed on 12/12/2010 from 10. Deepwater Horizon: A timeline of Events. Offshore-Technology.com. (2010). Accessed on 12/11/2010 from 11. Cleveland, C. Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Encyclopedia of the Earth. (5 Dec 2010). Accessed on 12/2/2010 from


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