Presentation on theme: "Folding & Faulting Folding When Earth’s crust bends, folds occur Folding occurs under compression when forces act towards each other, such as when."— Presentation transcript:
Folding & Faulting Folding When Earth’s crust bends, folds occur Folding occurs under compression when forces act towards each other, such as when plates collide.
Folding & Faulting Definitions Compression Is a process of forcing something into smaller compass, reducing it in volume by pressing it together Tension Is a pulling force, tending to stretch, to cause an extension of a body or to restore the shape of an extended elastic object
A fold is a bend in the rock strata. Folding: Is a type of earth movement resulting from the horizontal compression of rock layers by internal forces of the earth along plate boundaries.
A upfold are termed as anticlines The downfolds are termed synclines
Folding & Faulting Parts of a fold : layers of rocks of continental crust bent in upfolds called anticlines & downfolds called synclines. 2 sides of a fold are called the limbs. Generally, anticlines form fold mountains & synclines form valleys
Folding & Faulting There are 2 main fold mountains systems in the world: Old and young fold mountains, based on their geological age. A) The old Caledonian fold mountains (formed 400 million years ago) B) The Circum-Pacific Region surrounding the pacific ocean (formed within the last 100 million years)
Folding & Faulting
amount of folding depends on force used by movement of the plates. When folding is very complex, there is little relationship between anticlines & mountains & between synclines & valleys.
Anticline in Utah
Folding & Faulting Faulting Faulting occurs when Earth’s crust cracks: 1. under tension ( when forces are acting opposite each other ) causing layers of rocks to stretch & crack ; a normal fault develops & one block moves down relative to other block in direction of fault to form an escarpment
The process by which rocks break and move or are displaced along a fracture
Folding & Faulting Types of faults About Geography Animated graphics on different types of faults
Folding & Faulting Block Mountain or horst block that is raised between 2 parallel faults forms a block mountain or horst if the surface is horizontal or tilted plateau if block mountain is tilted eg : Deccan Plateau in India. A horst can also be formed by sinking of blocks on either side of parallel faults, leaving central block standing high as mountain
Folding & Faulting Rift valley or Graben is formed when block between 2 parallel faults sinks or when block on either side of 2 parallel faults are thrust up over central block. Egs are the Rhine Rift Valley (between the Black Forest of Germany & the Vosges of France) & the East African Rift Valley.