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Progression Award in Sport & Leisure Level 1 Unit 5: Understand fitness, health and the human body.

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Presentation on theme: "Progression Award in Sport & Leisure Level 1 Unit 5: Understand fitness, health and the human body."— Presentation transcript:

1 Progression Award in Sport & Leisure Level 1 Unit 5: Understand fitness, health and the human body

2 Assignment task E In consultation with your teacher you should choose an action used in each of the two different practical activities to study. For each of the activities chosen you need to list the muscles and joints involved and make an analysis of the actions of the joints and muscles.

3 Level 1 Bicep Curl Sit up

4 Physical Activity 1 – Bicep Curl The athlete stands with their feet slightly apart and with their knees, slightly bent. Their stomach is contracted to help hold the spine in a strong and protected position. The elbows are held tight into the body, to prevent any other muscle group from assisting the lift. The arms are slowly lowered until they are almost fully extended and then they are slowly lifted upwards, as the muscle contracts. The performer breathes in on the way down and out on the way up.

5 Physical Activity 1 – Bicep Curl

6 List of major muscles and analysis of action Bicep (front of the upper arm) Tricep (back of the upper arm)

7 Physical Activity 1 – Bicep Curl List of joints and analysis of action Hinge (freely moveable) – where movement is possible in one plane only. The movements possible are flexion and extension.

8 Physical Activity 1 – Bicep Curl Flexion – to reduce the angle at the joint or to bend a limb. Extension – to return from flexion, increase the angle at the joint, or to straighten a limb.

9 On the flexion part of the movement (hand moves towards shoulder) the bicep is contracting (agonist) and the tricep is relaxing (antagonist) On the extension part of the movement (hand lowers towards thigh) the tricep is contracting (agonist) and the bicep is relaxing (antagonist) Analysis

10 Physical Activity 2 – Sit up The athlete lies down with their feet slightly apart and with their knees, slightly bent. Their stomach is contracted to help hold the spine in a strong and protected position. The hands are placed either on the temples, across the chest or with hands on thighs. The performer slowly lifts/curls upwards, as the muscle contracts and then returns/lowers back down to the start position. The performer breathes in on the way down and out on the way up.

11 Physical Activity 2 – Sit up

12 List of major muscles and analysis of action Rectus Abdominis (abdominals) Erector Spinae (muscles around the spine)

13 Physical Activity 2 – Sit up List of joints and analysis of action Slightly moveable The movements possible are flexion, extension and hyperextension

14 Physical Activity 2 – Sit up Hyperextension – means to move a joint beyond its normal range of movement

15 Analysis On the flexion part of the movement (way up) the rectus abdominis contracts (agonist) and the erector spinae relaxes (antagonist) On the extension part of the movement (way down) the erector spinae contracts (agonist) and the rectus abdominis relaxes (antagonist)

16 Level 2 Press up Squat

17 Physical Activity 3 – Press up The athlete begins with their feet apart, on their toes and their arms shoulder width apart and fully extended. The stomach is contracted to help hold the spine in a strong and protected position, whilst the back is kept straight. The athlete slowly lowers their body down, controlling the descent as the elbows become flexed. When just off the floor, the athlete then contracts their arm and upper body muscles and push up slowly, as they extend their elbows. The performer breathes in on the way down and out on the way up.

18 Physical Activity 3 – Press up

19 List of major muscles and analysis of action Pectorals (chest) Trapezius/Rhomboids (upper back) Biceps (front of upper arm) Triceps (back of upper arm)

20 Physical Activity 3 – Press up List of joints and analysis of action Shoulder/Ball and Socket (freely moveable) – where movement occurs in three planes The movements possible are flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, circumduction and hyperextension Elbow/Hinge (freely moveable) – where movement is possible in one plane only The movements possible are flexion and extension.

21 Physical Activity 3 – Press up Rotation – a rotary movement, inward or outward Circumduction – to circle part of the body

22 Physical Activity 3 – Press up There is also some movement in the shoulder girdle, mainly retraction and protraction Retraction – shoulders are drawn backwards, opening out the chest Protraction – shoulders are drawn forwards, rounding the shoulders

23 Analysis On the way down (rotation and abduction at the shoulder, flexion at the elbow) the trapezius is contracting (agonist) and the pectorals are relaxing (antagonist). However, the bicep is assisting the trapezius (synergist) On the way up (rotation and adduction at the shoulder, extension at the elbow) the pectorals are contracting with the triceps assisting and the trapezius relaxing. The deltoid acts as a fixator.

24 Physical Activity 4 - Squat The athlete stands with their feet apart and with their knees slightly bent. Their stomach is contracted to help hold the spine in a strong and protected position, whilst the back is kept straight. The athlete then slowly flexes their knees and travels downwards, under control, until their legs reach just short of a 90-degree angle. At the bottom of the squat, the back is straight and the bottom is back. The athlete then contracts their leg muscles and extends their knees until they return back to the starting position. The performer breathes in on the way down and out on the way up.

25 Physical Activity 4 - Squat

26 List of major muscles and analysis of action Hamstrings (back of thigh) Quadriceps (front of thigh) Gastrocnemius (back of lower leg) Tibialis Anterior (front of lower leg) Hip flexors (hips) Gluteus Maximum (bottom)

27 Physical Activity 4 - Squat

28 List of joints and analysis of action Hip/Ball & Socket (freely moveable) – where movement occurs in three planes Knee/Hinge (freely moveable) – where movement is possible in one plane only

29 Physical Activity 4 - Squat Hip/Ball & Socket The movements possible are flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, circumduction and hyperextension Knee/Hinge The movements possible are flexion and extension

30 Analysis On the way down (flexion at the hip and knee) hamstrings, gastrocnemius and hip flexors contract, quadriceps and tibialis anterior relax. On the way up (extension at the hip and knee) quads, tibialis and glutes contract and hamstrings and gastrocnemius relax.

31 Activities http://www.teachpe.com/multi/types_muscle_prime_mov ers_agonists_synergists_new.htm http://www.teachpe.com/multi/types_muscle_prime_mov ers_agonists_synergists_new.htm http://www.teachpe.com/cloze/classification_of_joints.ht m http://www.teachpe.com/cloze/classification_of_joints.ht m http://www.teachpe.com/cloze/types_of_joint.htm http://www.teachpe.com/cloze/antagonistic_systems.htm http://www.teachpe.com/multi/types_movement_at_joint _flexion_extension_rotation_etc.htm http://www.teachpe.com/multi/types_movement_at_joint _flexion_extension_rotation_etc.htm http://www.teachpe.com/multi/types_muscular_contractio n.htm http://www.teachpe.com/multi/types_muscular_contractio n.htm


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