Presentation on theme: "The Nature and Propagation of Light"— Presentation transcript:
1The Nature and Propagation of Light Chapter 33The Nature and Propagation of Light
2To understand light rays and wavefronts Goals for Chapter 33To understand light rays and wavefrontsTo analyze reflection and refraction of lightTo understand total internal reflectionTo analyze the polarization of lightTo use Huygens’s principle to analyze reflection and refraction
3IntroductionWhy does a rainbow of colors appear when these tools are placed between polarizing filters?Our study of light will help us understand why the sky is blue and why we sometimes see a mirage in the desert.Huygens’s principle will connect the ray and wave models of light.
4The nature of lightLight has properties of both waves and particles. The wave model is easier for explaining propagation, but some other behavior requires the particle model.The rays are perpendicular to the wave fronts. See Figure 33.4 at the right.
5Reflection and refraction In Figure 33.5 the light is both reflected and refracted by the window.
6Specular and diffuse reflection Specular reflection occurs at a very smooth surface (left figure).Diffuse reflection occurs at a rough surface (right figure).Our primary concern is with specular reflection.
7Laws of reflection and refraction The frequency does not change on passing through a surface, but velocity does, and so wavelength.f = f0 => v/l = v0/l0=> v/cl = v0/cl0The index of refraction is n = c/v >1.Angles are measured with respect to the normal.Reflection: The angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence.Refraction: Snell’s law applies.In a material = 0/n.Figure 33.7 (right) illustrates the laws of reflection and refraction.
8Reflection and refraction in three cases Figure 33.8 below shows three important cases:If nb > na, the refracted ray is bent toward the normal.If nb < na, the refracted ray is bent away from the normal.A ray oriented along the normal never bends.
9Why does the ruler appear to be bent? The straight ruler in Figure 33.9(a) appears to bend at the surface of the water.Figure 33.9(b) shows why.
11An example of reflection and refraction Read Problem-Solving Strategy 33.1.Example 33.1, find the angles of reflection (qr) and refraction (qb). Use Figure below.
12The eye and two mirrorsExample 33.3 reflection from two mirrors. Use Figure below.
13Total internal reflection Light striking at the critical angle emerges tangent to the surface. (See Figure below.)If a > crit, the light is undergoes total internal reflection.
14Some applications of total internal reflection A binocular using Porro prisms (below) and a “light pipe” (right) make use of total internal reflection in their design.Can the abovework if the outsideof the rod is air?How do opticalfibers work?
15A diamond and a periscope Diamonds sparkle because they are cut so that total internal reflection occurs on their back surfaces. See Figure below.Example 33.4, leaky, crown-glass periscope.Why will periscope no longer work ifone of the prisms is in water?
16DispersionDispersion: The index of refraction depends on the wavelength of the light. See Figure (right).Figure (below) shows dispersion by a prism.
17Rainbows—IThe formation of a rainbow is due to the combined effects of dispersion, refraction, and reflection. (See Figure below and on the next slide.)
19PolarizationAn electromagnetic wave is linearly polarized if the electric field has only one component.Figure at the right shows a Polaroid polarizing filter.
20Malus’s law Figure 33.25 below shows a polarizer and an analyzer. A polarizer reduces the intensity of unpolarized light (I0) by a factor of 2, so the intensity of transmitted light is I0/2.A second polarizer (the analyzer) at angle f relative to the first further reduces the intensity according to:Malus’s law: I = Imaxcos2.Example 33.5.polarizer andanalyzer withf = 30°.
21Polarization by reflection When light is reflected at the polarizing angle p (Brewster’s angle), the reflected light is linearly polarized. See Figure below.The polarizing angle qp is when the reflected and refracted rays are 90° from each other, i.e. when qp + qb = 90 °.
22Reflection from a swimming pool Follow Example 33.6 using Figure below.fully polarizedpartially polarizedpartially polarizedfully polarized
23Circular polarization Circular polarization results from the superposition of two perpendicularly polarized electromagnetic waves having equal amplitude but a quarter-cycle phase difference. The result is that the electric field vector has constant amplitude but rotates about the direction of propagation. (Figure below.)
24Scattering of lightScattering occurs when light has been absorbed by molecules and reradiated.Figure below shows the effect of scattering for two observers.
25Why are clouds white?Clouds are white because they scatter all wavelengths efficiently. See Figure below.
26Huygens’s principleHuygens’s principle: Every point of a wave front can be considered to be a source of secondary wavelets that spread out in all directions with a speed equal to the speed of propagation of the wave. See Figure at the right.
27Reflection and Huygens’s principle Figure at the right shows how Huygens’s principle can be used to derive the law of reflection.
28Refraction and Huygens’s principle Huygens’s principle can be used to derive the law of refraction.Follow the text analysis using Figure below.
29A mirageHuygens’s principle can also explain the formation of a mirage. See Figure below.