Presentation on theme: "Discover PHYSICS for GCE ‘O’ Level Science"— Presentation transcript:
1Discover PHYSICS for GCE ‘O’ Level Science Unit 10 LightRefraction
210.4 Refraction at Plane Surfaces Learning OutcomesIn this section, you’ll be able to:Understand the terms used for refraction:NormalAngle of incidenceAngle of refractionRecall that , and solve related problemsDefine refractive index of a medium in terms of ratio of the speed of light in vacuum to that in the medium
310.4 Refraction at Plane Surfaces In Figure 10.28, we can observe that the pencil seems to be bent. What causes this effect?Figure 10.28
410.4 Refraction at Plane Surfaces Light can travel through transparent materials such as glass, water or plastic.Figure shows a light ray traveling from air into glass, and then into air again.We can see the bending effect on the light ray when it passes from one medium into another. We call this refraction.Figure 10.29
510.4 Refraction at Plane Surfaces Refraction of light is the bending of light ray as it passes from one medium into another.
610.4 Refraction at Plane Surfaces What causes refraction?Light travels at different speed in different media.For example, in air its speed is 3.0 × 108 m s-1, while in glass it is 2.0 × 108 m s-1.At the boundary of the two media such as air and glass, there is a sudden change in speed of the light. This change in speed causes the path of the light to bend, resulting in refraction.
710.4 Refraction at Plane Surfaces Laws of RefractionThe incident ray, the normal and the refracted ray all lie in the same plane.For two particular media, the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to the sine of the angle of refraction is a constant, i.e.
810.4 Refraction at Plane Surfaces Snell’s LawThe equationwhere n = constant, is also known as Snell’s Law.
910.4 Refraction at Plane Surfaces Refractive IndexFor the case of a light ray traveling from airinto a medium such as glass, thenwhere n is the refractive index of the mediumincident rayiairMedium (glass)rrefracted ray
1010.4 Refraction at Plane Surfaces Refractive Index, nFor light passing from air or vacuum into a medium, then
1110.4 Refraction at Plane Surfaces Table 10.3 Refractive indices of some transparentmaterials
1210.4 Refraction at Plane Surfaces Refractive indexGlass (nglass = 1.50) a higher refractive index than water(nwater= 1.33). When a light ray enters glass, it will bendtowards the normal more than compared to when it enterswater.iiairairrwrgGlass, nglass = 1.50water, nwater = 1.33
1310.4 Refraction at Plane Surfaces Can reflection and refraction occursimultaneously?Light is both reflected and refracted at air-glass interface. However the amount of light reflected is usually smaller than the amount of light refracted.Figure 10.36
1410.4 Refraction at Plane Surfaces One-way MirrorsA one-way mirror is made of a sheet of glass coated with a thin reflecting layer of metal. This mirror reflects half the light and allows the other half to pass through.
1510.4 Refraction at Plane Surfaces Phenomena of Refraction‘Bent’ Objects – when a rod is placed in water, it appears ‘bent’.In Figure 10.39, the light rays traveling from water to air bend away from the normal.However, our brain tends to tell us that the light rays travel in straight line.Thus, we tend to visualize the rod as ‘bent’.Figure Ray diagram of the ‘bent’ image of a rod in a glass of water
1610.4 Refraction at Plane Surfaces Phenomena of RefractionMisperception of Depth – The effect of refraction can make a swimming pool seem shallower than it really is.Figure Ray diagram of the image I of a point O at the bottom of a swimming pool.
1710.4 Refraction at Plane Surfaces The Secret of the Archer FishHow is the Archer fish able to overcome the visual distortion caused by refraction?Answer: The Archer fish position itself directly under the prey. This way, the prey appears the least distorted, as the light rays entering the water surface perpendicularly are not refracted.
1810.4 Refraction at Plane Surfaces News Reader PrompterHave you wondered how a news reader is able to read the script and yet maintain eye contact with the camera lens?A news reader prompterAnswer: The news reader reads the script off a partially reflected image, which is formed on a one-way mirror. The camera is positioned behind the mirror.
1910.4 Refraction at Plane Surfaces Key IdeasRefraction occurs because the speed of light changes when travelling through different optical media.The two Laws of Refraction are:The incident ray, the normal and the refracted ray all lie in the same plane.For two particular media,where i is the angle of incidence in air.
2010.4 Refraction at Plane Surfaces Key IdeasThe refractive index n of a transparent medium iswhere c is the speed of light in vacuum or air,v is the speed of light in the medium4.where i is the angle of incidence of light in air or vacuum5. Light is both reflected and refracted at the boundary of two optical media.
2110.4 Refraction at Plane Surfaces Test Yourself 10.41. Draw a diagram to show how the direction of light changes when it travels from air into water.Answer:waterairirnormalincident rayrefracted rayi = angle of incidence,r = angle of refraction
2210.4 Refraction at Plane Surfaces Test Yourself 10.42. How is the speed of light in glass related to the angle of incidence and angle of refraction?Answer:iairglasswhere i = angle of incidence in vacuum or air,r = angle of refraction in glassc = speed of light in vacuum or airv = speed of light in glassr
2310.4 Refraction at Plane Surfaces Test Yourself 10.43. At what angle of incidence in air will light pass through another transparent medium without being refracted?Answer:When the angle of incidence, i = 0° from the normal, the light ray passes straight through with refraction or bending.airmedium
2410.4 Refraction at Plane Surfaces Test Yourself 10.44. Draw a diagram to show how the eye sees a coin at the bottom of a bucket of water.wateraircoinimage of coin