2 Reasons for Strength Training Prevent & rehab injuryControl body weightPrevent or treat osteoporosisEnhance athletic performanceManage stress
3 Program Considerations Health & Fitness StatusGoalsPrinciples of TrainingOverloadSpecificityThe Training EnvironmentType of muscle actionDynamic or static resistance trainingConstant or variable resistance
4 Guidelines for Developing Muscular Fitness Guidelines are not as clearly established as for cardiovascular fitness.The primary objective of resistance training should be to develop total body muscular fitness in a safe and time-efficient manner.To accomplish this, it is recommended to do 8-10 exercises to condition major muscle groups.
5 Guidelines for Developing Muscular Fitness (ACSM p. 463) Brief warm-up beforeProper techniqueMinimum of one set of 8-12 reps of each exercise to the point of volitional fatigueIncrease resistance as needed ~ 5%Exercise at least 2x/week; allow rest for heavier loads; can go 3x/week if light loadsBoth phases of the lift should be controlledEach exercise should be performed through full range of motionBreath normallyUse a partner if available for safety and feedback
6 Resistance Training for Special Populations There are no age or gender restrictions.Women reap similar benefits as men and under normal circumstances do not develop large muscles.Can be safe for women who are pregnant if they have already been training PRIOR to pregnancy.
7 Children No minimum age standard. A properly designed & properly performed resistance training program can be productive and beneficial.Risk is minimal however:Damaging skeletal system may occur if lifting excessively heavy.
8 Children Factors to consider: Ability to accept & follow instructions Desire to participateBasic motor skills and ability to perform exercises safely.
9 Guidelines for Children (ACSM p. 646) Proper technique requiredControl at all phases of the liftResistance appropriately match to the childEach set of an exercise should have 8-12 repsAdolescence should not exercise to volitional muscular fatigueInitially introduce overload through reps vs. resistance
10 Guidelines for Children (ACSM p. 646) Exercises should include one for each major muscle group (8-10 exercises)Perform 1-2 sets of each exercisePerform 2 sessions per week with rest period betweenPerform FROM multi-joint exercise vs. single joint exercisesAchieve muscular balance each session by alternating agonists & antagonist
11 SeniorsLack of muscular fitness is linked to a decline in physical function and ultimately limited independence.Examples include:Rising from a seated positionPoor balancePoor walking
12 Seniors Resistance training is also effective for improving: Osteoarthritis, Osteoporosis, Balance, Weight controlThe cessation of resistance training program results in rapid, significant loss of strength.When re-starting resistance training program again, start at levels at about 50% of intensity prior to discontinuing.
13 Guidelines for Seniors (ACSM p. 464) Design a program of muscular fitness that will enhance independent livingClosely supervise initial sessionsInstruct & insure proper techniqueUse minimal resistance during the first 8 weeks to allow tissue adaptationMaintain normal breathingOverload by reps first, resistance later.
14 Guidelines for Seniors (ACSM p. 464) Use a resistance that can be comfortably lifted for at least 6 reps per setControl all phases of the liftPerform all exercises in a pain-free range of motionPerform multi-joint exercisesUse of machines has advantages:Less skill to useProvide more support to the backAllow folks to start at lower levels of resistanceUsually allow smaller incremental jumpsAllow greater control of exercise ROMAllow a more time efficient workout
15 Cardiac PatientsResistance training is appropriate if appropriately prescribed, designed and supervised.Both the ACSM and the American Assoc. of Cardiovascular & Pulmonary Rehab (AACVPR) recommend resistance training as a part of a comprehensive program.Especially recommend for:Those whose occupation requires extensive arm workThose with desire to perform activities using the upper extremitiesThose who are trying to offset atrophy & want to alter body composition
16 Cardiac PatientsEvery patient is different and they must have clearance from physician.Safety is the most important issue.See ACSM & AACVPR recommendations
17 Guidelines for Cardiac Patients Patient must be asymptomatic or mildly symptomaticStart resistance training after a minimum of 12 weeks of aerobic trainingSelect resistance levels that allows comfortable reps at ~ 60% 1Rep Max.Use single limb exercises vs. double limb in those who have an exaggerated rise in blood pressure.
18 Guidelines for Cardiac Patients Perform 2-3 sets of each exerciseRPE Scale should not exceed “fairly light” (14 or 15).Breath normally at all timesIncrease only by micro increments of lbs when reps can be easily managed.Exercise muscles from large to small 2-3x/wk
19 Guidelines for Cardiac Patients Do both upper and lower bodyAvoid static contractionsDiscontinue exercises if any symptoms appearRest periods should be ~ 60 secondsRequire patients to monitor and record heart rate, rated perceived exertion, symptoms following each exercise or set of exercises
20 Pregnant Women Inconsistent advice is out there Generally, resistance training is safe for pregnant womenHelps provide enhanced muscular fitness which can compensate for postural adjustmentsAlso assist with improving ease of activities of daily livingResistance training is NOT advisable for ALL pregnant women…especially those who have never lifted before.
21 Pregnant WomenSee contraindications listed on p. 466, Table 53.4
22 Guidelines for Pregnant Women If aerobic exercise is not indicated then resistance training is also not indicatedNewcomers to resistance training should not start while pregnantAvoid ballistic exercisesBreath normallyAvoid heavy resistance exercisesAvoid exercise lying supine
23 Guidelines for Pregnant Women Perform repsOverload initially through reps vs. resistanceMachine weight are preferred due to increased safetyDiscontinue any exercise that causes pain or discomfortSee warning signs requiring Dr. consult p. 466.
25 SpecificityTraining is most effective when resistance exercises are similar to the target activity.Select exercises similar to the target activity with regard to the joints about which the movements occur and the directions of the movement.Exercises should be selected that involve similar movement around the same joints.Enough overlap of training effects that exercising muscles within the planes also strengthens them for movements between the planes.Consider specificity of speed as well as the movement.
26 Overload Principle Increases in training load as the body adapts. To continue to improve, the load must gradually progress.Overload can be achieved by:Increasing the resistance of the weightIncreasing the repsIncreasing the setsDecreasing the rest period between sets or exercises40-60% of 1 rep max appears to be enough to develop muscular strength in most normally active people.80-100% have been shown to produce the most rapid gains in muscular strength.
27 Training VolumeIncreased by either longer duration or more frequent training bouts.Should be monitored to avoid overtraining.
28 Training IntensityRefers to the force of muscle action and stress on the muscular and cardiovascular systems.
29 PeriodizationUsed to promote long-term training and performance improvements which includes variations in training specificity, intensity, and volume.Organized in planned periods or cycles within an overall program throughout the year.Will address all aspects of the person’s program: general conditioning, sports-specific activities, and resistance training.
31 Exercise Technique Fundamentals Optimal body & limb positionMovement rangeBreathingAccessory equipment ie) weight belt
32 Hand Grips Closed Grips: Open or False Grip Pronated grip Supinated gripNeutral grip – knuckles point laterallyAlternated gripHook grip – fingers wrap over the thumbOpen or False GripWhen the thumb does not wrap around the bar
33 Hand Grips Hand position should result in a balanced, even bar. Hands are usually shoulder width apart.Variety of grip widths:CommonWideNarrow
34 Body & Limb PositionStable position allows the maintenance of proper alignment.Allows appropriate stress on the muscles & joints.Standing exercise feet slightly wider than hips with entire foot in contact with floor.Seated exercises may require seat adjustment.Supine exercises five point contact should be maintained for maximum stability and support.
35 Five Point Contact Back of head Upper back/shoulders Lower back/buttocksR. FootL. Foot
36 Body Position on Machines Cam or lever based machinesAxis of rotationLine up joint with axis
37 Movement ROM & SpeedFull range of motion (ROM) should be executed for greatest improvementsIncreases the value of exerciseFlexibility is maintained or improvedPerform reps in a slow, controlled manner to insure full range of motionBar speed will increase with certain power exercises such as power cleans.
38 Breathing Considerations Exhale through the sticking pointInhale during easier phase of liftThis recommendation is appropriate for most exercises.Breath holding may be suggested with the heaviest of lifts…but for no more that 2 secs.Valsalva Maneuver + contracting abdominal & rib muscles creates rigid compartments.Advantage supports the vertebral column from the interior.Disadvantage causes increase in blood pressure, etc.
39 Weight BeltsRecommended for those exercises that place stress on lumbar spine.Mainly for near-max or max liftsDrawback includes decreased involvement of abs to be trained.Not needed for exercises that don’t involve the back.Not needed with exercises that involve the back if lighter weights are used.
40 Lifting A Bar off the Floor Keep the bar close to the bodyBack flat during upward pull
41 Spotting Free-Weight Exercises Spotters primary responsibility is the safety of the person being spotted.Assists with the lift to prevent injury.Helps with completing forced reps, aka partner-assisted actions.Safety is the number one priority.
42 Spotters Needed for the more challenging exercises. Dumbbell exercises requires more skill than spotting barbell exercises.Many exercises should be performed inside a power rack.Exercises performed outside the cage should only be performed by well trained athletes.
43 SpottingFor over-the-face exercises, use an alternate hand grip, within the lifters grip.Must have a solid base of support and a flat back posture.For dumbbell exercises, stay close to the dumbbell.Spot the wrist vs. elbows for dumbbell exercises.Power exercises should not be spotted.
44 Number of Spotters Determined by: Amount of the loadExperience of the lifterExperience of the spotter(s)General rule once the load exceeds the spotter’s ability, another spotter is needed.Two spotters must coordinate their actions to insure safety.One spotter is preferred if can be done safely.
45 Communication Before the lift: How will the bar be handled? Liftoff?How many reps?Verbal signalsSpotter must insure control of bar prior to releasingFinished positionOnly one spotter should assist with liftoff.Two spotters can assist with finish.
46 Amount & Timing of Assistance Usually the lifter only needs a little help.Don’t jump in early.Have a verbal cue establishedMake “rescue” quick and smooth to avoid abrupt changes in load.
58 Types of Muscle Action (NSCA, p. 41) IsometricMuscle length remains the sameContractile force is equal to the resistanceErector spinae during a squat; straight leg raiseConcentricMuscle shortensContractile force is greater than the resistanceSwimming & cyclingEccentricMuscle lengthensContractile force is less than the resistive forceDownward phase of weight lifting; resists acceleration
59 Strength-to-Mass Ratio (NSCA, p. 41) Reflects the athlete’s ability to accelerate his/her body.If body mass increases w/o an increase in force capability acceleration decreases.Has implications in sports involving weight classifications.Larger athletes have a lower strength-to-mass-ratio than smaller athletes.As body size increases, muscle volume increases proportionately more (body weight) than does muscle cross-sectional area (strength).
60 Body SizeAll else being equal, smaller athletes are stronger pound for pound than larger athletes.As body weight increases, body mass increases faster than does muscle strength.Smaller athletes have a high strength-to-mass-ratio than larger athletes.
61 Sources of Resistance to Muscle Contraction GravityInertiaFrictionFluid ResistanceElasticity
63 Joint Biomechanics Concerning Lifting The Shoulders:Less stable ball & socket jointGreat range of motionThe rotator cuff muscles and the pectorals are instrumental in keeping the joint in place.Certain lifts put great stress on the shoulder and require a good warm-up and controlled speeds:BenchInclineShoulder press
64 Joint Biomechanics Concerning Lifting The Knees:Prone to injury due to locationFlexion/Extension occurs almost exclusively in the sagittal planeLigaments & menisci help prevent rotation in the frontal and transverse planes.The patella is most susceptible to forces encountered in resistance training.Patella’s main function is to hold the quad tendon away from the knee axis increasing the moment arm & mechanical advantage.
66 Safety Tips (NSCA, pp.51-52) Perform warm up sets Perform basic exercises through a full range of motionUse relatively light weights with new exercises or after a lay offDo not ignore pain in or around the joints; adjust program to allow continuationNever attempt max lifts without proper preparation (physically and mentally)
67 Safety Tips Routinely ice post workout if needed Including supplementary exercises in a workout may help promote joint stability & balanceAvoid bouncing at the bottom of the squatBe careful when adding plyometrics into program. Need to be strong at the squat before beginning plyometrics.
68 Safety Tips Keep knee in proper alignment during squats Limit use of knee and elbow wraps; only heavy liftsVary exercise for muscle groups to get the greatest overall result for the muscle.Obtain qualified training in explosive movements prior to trying to avoid injuries.