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Muscular Strength & Endurance. Reasons for Strength Training Prevent & rehab injury Control body weight Prevent or treat osteoporosis Enhance athletic.

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Presentation on theme: "Muscular Strength & Endurance. Reasons for Strength Training Prevent & rehab injury Control body weight Prevent or treat osteoporosis Enhance athletic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Muscular Strength & Endurance

2 Reasons for Strength Training Prevent & rehab injury Control body weight Prevent or treat osteoporosis Enhance athletic performance Manage stress

3 Health & Fitness Status Goals Principles of Training –Overload –Specificity The Training Environment –Type of muscle action –Dynamic or static resistance training –Constant or variable resistance Program Considerations

4 Guidelines for Developing Muscular Fitness Guidelines are not as clearly established as for cardiovascular fitness. The primary objective of resistance training should be to develop total body muscular fitness in a safe and time-efficient manner. To accomplish this, it is recommended to do 8-10 exercises to condition major muscle groups.

5 Guidelines for Developing Muscular Fitness (ACSM p. 463) Brief warm-up before Proper technique Minimum of one set of 8-12 reps of each exercise to the point of volitional fatigue Increase resistance as needed ~ 5% Exercise at least 2x/week; allow rest for heavier loads; can go 3x/week if light loads Both phases of the lift should be controlled Each exercise should be performed through full range of motion Breath normally Use a partner if available for safety and feedback

6 Resistance Training for Special Populations There are no age or gender restrictions. Women reap similar benefits as men and under normal circumstances do not develop large muscles. Can be safe for women who are pregnant if they have already been training PRIOR to pregnancy.

7 Children No minimum age standard. A properly designed & properly performed resistance training program can be productive and beneficial. Risk is minimal however: –Damaging skeletal system may occur if lifting excessively heavy.

8 Children Factors to consider: –Ability to accept & follow instructions –Desire to participate –Basic motor skills and ability to perform exercises safely.

9 Guidelines for Children (ACSM p. 646) Proper technique required Control at all phases of the lift Resistance appropriately match to the child Each set of an exercise should have 8-12 reps Adolescence should not exercise to volitional muscular fatigue Initially introduce overload through reps vs. resistance

10 Guidelines for Children (ACSM p. 646) Exercises should include one for each major muscle group (8-10 exercises) Perform 1-2 sets of each exercise Perform 2 sessions per week with rest period between Perform FROM multi-joint exercise vs. single joint exercises Achieve muscular balance each session by alternating agonists & antagonist

11 Seniors Lack of muscular fitness is linked to a decline in physical function and ultimately limited independence. Examples include: –Rising from a seated position –Poor balance –Poor walking

12 Seniors Resistance training is also effective for improving: –Osteoarthritis, Osteoporosis, Balance, Weight control The cessation of resistance training program results in rapid, significant loss of strength. When re-starting resistance training program again, start at levels at about 50% of intensity prior to discontinuing.

13 Guidelines for Seniors (ACSM p. 464) Design a program of muscular fitness that will enhance independent living Closely supervise initial sessions Instruct & insure proper technique Use minimal resistance during the first 8 weeks to allow tissue adaptation Maintain normal breathing Overload by reps first, resistance later.

14 Guidelines for Seniors (ACSM p. 464) Use a resistance that can be comfortably lifted for at least 6 reps per set Control all phases of the lift Perform all exercises in a pain-free range of motion Perform multi-joint exercises Use of machines has advantages: –Less skill to use –Provide more support to the back –Allow folks to start at lower levels of resistance –Usually allow smaller incremental jumps –Allow greater control of exercise ROM –Allow a more time efficient workout

15 Cardiac Patients Resistance training is appropriate if appropriately prescribed, designed and supervised. Both the ACSM and the American Assoc. of Cardiovascular & Pulmonary Rehab (AACVPR) recommend resistance training as a part of a comprehensive program. Especially recommend for: –Those whose occupation requires extensive arm work –Those with desire to perform activities using the upper extremities –Those who are trying to offset atrophy & want to alter body composition

16 Cardiac Patients Every patient is different and they must have clearance from physician. Safety is the most important issue. See ACSM & AACVPR recommendations

17 Guidelines for Cardiac Patients Patient must be asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic Start resistance training after a minimum of 12 weeks of aerobic training Select resistance levels that allows 10-12 comfortable reps at ~ 60% 1Rep Max. Use single limb exercises vs. double limb in those who have an exaggerated rise in blood pressure.

18 Guidelines for Cardiac Patients Perform 2-3 sets of each exercise RPE Scale should not exceed “fairly light” (14 or 15). Breath normally at all times Increase only by micro increments of 2.5-5 lbs when 10-12 reps can be easily managed. Exercise muscles from large to small 2-3x/wk

19 Guidelines for Cardiac Patients Do both upper and lower body Avoid static contractions Discontinue exercises if any symptoms appear Rest periods should be ~ 60 seconds Require patients to monitor and record heart rate, rated perceived exertion, symptoms following each exercise or set of exercises

20 Pregnant Women Inconsistent advice is out there Generally, resistance training is safe for pregnant women Helps provide enhanced muscular fitness which can compensate for postural adjustments Also assist with improving ease of activities of daily living Resistance training is NOT advisable for ALL pregnant women…especially those who have never lifted before.

21 Pregnant Women See contraindications listed on p. 466, Table 53.4

22 Guidelines for Pregnant Women If aerobic exercise is not indicated then resistance training is also not indicated Newcomers to resistance training should not start while pregnant Avoid ballistic exercises Breath normally Avoid heavy resistance exercises Avoid exercise lying supine

23 Guidelines for Pregnant Women Perform 12-15 reps Overload initially through reps vs. resistance Machine weight are preferred due to increased safety Discontinue any exercise that causes pain or discomfort See warning signs requiring Dr. consult p. 466.

24 Definitions Muscular Strength Muscular Endurance Isometric Isotonic Isokinetic Hypertrophy Atrophy Sarcopenia Sticking Point Racking the Bar Load Specificity Overload Training Volume Training Intensity Periodization

25 Specificity Training is most effective when resistance exercises are similar to the target activity. Select exercises similar to the target activity with regard to the joints about which the movements occur and the directions of the movement. Exercises should be selected that involve similar movement around the same joints. Enough overlap of training effects that exercising muscles within the planes also strengthens them for movements between the planes. Consider specificity of speed as well as the movement.

26 Overload Principle Increases in training load as the body adapts. To continue to improve, the load must gradually progress. Overload can be achieved by: –Increasing the resistance of the weight –Increasing the reps –Increasing the sets –Decreasing the rest period between sets or exercises 40-60% of 1 rep max appears to be enough to develop muscular strength in most normally active people. –80-100% have been shown to produce the most rapid gains in muscular strength.

27 Training Volume Increased by either longer duration or more frequent training bouts. Should be monitored to avoid overtraining.

28 Refers to the force of muscle action and stress on the muscular and cardiovascular systems. Training Intensity

29 Periodization Used to promote long-term training and performance improvements which includes variations in training specificity, intensity, and volume. Organized in planned periods or cycles within an overall program throughout the year. Will address all aspects of the person’s program: general conditioning, sports- specific activities, and resistance training.

30 Exercise Technique Fundamentals

31 Optimal body & limb position Movement range Breathing Accessory equipment ie) weight belt

32 Hand Grips Closed Grips: –Pronated grip –Supinated grip –Neutral grip – knuckles point laterally –Alternated grip –Hook grip – fingers wrap over the thumb Open or False Grip –When the thumb does not wrap around the bar

33 Hand Grips Hand position should result in a balanced, even bar. Hands are usually shoulder width apart. Variety of grip widths: –Common –Wide –Narrow

34 Body & Limb Position Stable position allows the maintenance of proper alignment. Allows appropriate stress on the muscles & joints. Standing exercise  feet slightly wider than hips with entire foot in contact with floor. Seated exercises  may require seat adjustment. Supine exercises  five point contact should be maintained for maximum stability and support.

35 Five Point Contact Back of head Upper back/shoulders Lower back/buttocks R. Foot L. Foot

36 Body Position on Machines Cam or lever based machines Axis of rotation Line up joint with axis

37 Movement ROM & Speed Full range of motion (ROM) should be executed for greatest improvements Increases the value of exercise Flexibility is maintained or improved Perform reps in a slow, controlled manner to insure full range of motion Bar speed will increase with certain power exercises such as power cleans.

38 Breathing Considerations Exhale through the sticking point Inhale during easier phase of lift This recommendation is appropriate for most exercises. Breath holding may be suggested with the heaviest of lifts…but for no more that 2 secs. Valsalva Maneuver + contracting abdominal & rib muscles creates rigid compartments. Advantage  supports the vertebral column from the interior. Disadvantage  causes increase in blood pressure, etc.

39 Weight Belts Recommended for those exercises that place stress on lumbar spine. Mainly for near-max or max lifts Drawback includes decreased involvement of abs to be trained. Not needed for exercises that don’t involve the back. Not needed with exercises that involve the back if lighter weights are used.

40 Lifting A Bar off the Floor Keep the bar close to the body Back flat during upward pull

41 Spotting Free-Weight Exercises Spotters primary responsibility is the safety of the person being spotted. Assists with the lift to prevent injury. Helps with completing forced reps, aka partner-assisted actions. Safety is the number one priority.

42 Spotters Needed for the more challenging exercises. Dumbbell exercises requires more skill than spotting barbell exercises. Many exercises should be performed inside a power rack. Exercises performed outside the cage should only be performed by well trained athletes.

43 Spotting For over-the-face exercises, use an alternate hand grip, within the lifters grip. Must have a solid base of support and a flat back posture. For dumbbell exercises, stay close to the dumbbell. Spot the wrist vs. elbows for dumbbell exercises. Power exercises should not be spotted.

44 Number of Spotters Determined by: –Amount of the load –Experience of the lifter –Experience of the spotter(s) General rule  once the load exceeds the spotter’s ability, another spotter is needed. Two spotters must coordinate their actions to insure safety. One spotter is preferred if can be done safely.

45 Communication Before the lift: –How will the bar be handled? Liftoff? –How many reps? –Verbal signals –Spotter must insure control of bar prior to releasing –Finished position Only one spotter should assist with liftoff. Two spotters can assist with finish.

46 Amount & Timing of Assistance Usually the lifter only needs a little help. Don’t jump in early. Have a verbal cue established Make “rescue” quick and smooth to avoid abrupt changes in load.

47 Weight Machines vs. Free Weights

48 Machines vs. Free Weights Stack Machines: –Pros: Safety Design Flexibility Ease of Use –Cons: Expense Lack of functional carryover Lack of assistance from accessory muscles

49 Machines vs. Free Weights Free Weights: –Pros: Whole body training Functional movements –Acceleration –Deceleration Less expensive –Cons: Not as safe May require a spotter

50 Which Exercises – Forearms Forearms –Wrist Curls –Reverse Wrist curls –Pronation & Supination

51 Which Exercises – Arms Arm Flexors –Dumbbell Curls –Concentration curls –Hammer curls –Pulley curls –Barbell curls –Machine curls –Preacher curls –Reverse curls

52 Which Exercises – Arms Arm Extensors –Pushdowns –Reverse pushdowns –Supine triceps extensions (nose breakers) –Supine triceps extensions –Seated triceps extensions (1 & 2 arms) –EZ bar triceps extensions –Kickbacks –Dips

53 Which Exercises – Shoulders Military press (off the chest) Overhead press (1 & 2 arm) Front & Lateral raises Upright rows Bent over rows

54 Which Exercises – Chest Bench Incline (upper) Decline (lower) Push ups Pec Deck Cable Cross Over Flys

55 Which Exercises – Back Chin ups & Pull ups Lat Pull downs (front & rear, narrow & wide) Seated row Bent over row T-bar rows Deadlifts Back Extensions Shrugs

56 Which Exercises – Legs Squats Leg press Leg extensions Prone leg curl Seat leg curl Standing leg curl Multi Hip Standing calf raises Seated calf raises Lunges Step ups

57 Components of Physical Fitness & Performance

58 Types of Muscle Action (NSCA, p. 41) Isometric –Muscle length remains the same –Contractile force is equal to the resistance –Erector spinae during a squat; straight leg raise Concentric –Muscle shortens –Contractile force is greater than the resistance –Swimming & cycling Eccentric –Muscle lengthens –Contractile force is less than the resistive force –Downward phase of weight lifting; resists acceleration

59 Strength-to-Mass Ratio (NSCA, p. 41) Reflects the athlete’s ability to accelerate his/her body. If body mass increases w/o an increase in force capability  acceleration decreases. Has implications in sports involving weight classifications. Larger athletes have a lower strength-to-mass- ratio than smaller athletes. –As body size increases, muscle volume increases proportionately more (body weight) than does muscle cross-sectional area (strength).

60 Body Size All else being equal, smaller athletes are stronger pound for pound than larger athletes. As body weight increases, body mass increases faster than does muscle strength. Smaller athletes have a high strength-to- mass-ratio than larger athletes.

61 Sources of Resistance to Muscle Contraction Gravity Inertia Friction Fluid Resistance Elasticity

62 Joint Biomechanics Concerning Lifting

63 The Shoulders: –Less stable ball & socket joint –Great range of motion –The rotator cuff muscles and the pectorals are instrumental in keeping the joint in place. –Certain lifts put great stress on the shoulder and require a good warm-up and controlled speeds: Bench Incline Shoulder press

64 Joint Biomechanics Concerning Lifting The Knees: –Prone to injury due to location –Flexion/Extension occurs almost exclusively in the sagittal plane –Ligaments & menisci help prevent rotation in the frontal and transverse planes. –The patella is most susceptible to forces encountered in resistance training. –Patella’s main function is to hold the quad tendon away from the knee axis  increasing the moment arm & mechanical advantage.

65 General Safety Tips

66 Safety Tips (NSCA, pp.51-52) Perform warm up sets Perform basic exercises through a full range of motion Use relatively light weights with new exercises or after a lay off Do not ignore pain in or around the joints; adjust program to allow continuation Never attempt max lifts without proper preparation (physically and mentally)

67 Safety Tips Routinely ice post workout if needed Including supplementary exercises in a workout may help promote joint stability & balance Avoid bouncing at the bottom of the squat Be careful when adding plyometrics into program. Need to be strong at the squat before beginning plyometrics.

68 Safety Tips Keep knee in proper alignment during squats Limit use of knee and elbow wraps; only heavy lifts Vary exercise for muscle groups to get the greatest overall result for the muscle. Obtain qualified training in explosive movements prior to trying to avoid injuries.

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