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Investigation 7B The Geometry of Molecules. 2 Investigation 7B: The Geometry of Molecules HOHHOH Structural diagram: This molecule looks like it should.

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Presentation on theme: "Investigation 7B The Geometry of Molecules. 2 Investigation 7B: The Geometry of Molecules HOHHOH Structural diagram: This molecule looks like it should."— Presentation transcript:

1 Investigation 7B The Geometry of Molecules

2 2 Investigation 7B: The Geometry of Molecules HOHHOH Structural diagram: This molecule looks like it should be “straight” or linear… … but it really has a bent shape Why isn’t water a linear molecule?

3 3 Investigation 7B: The Geometry of Molecules HOHHOH Structural diagram: This molecule looks like it should be “straight” or linear… … but it really has a bent shape Lone electron pairs on the oxygen atom take up space too!

4 4 Investigation 7B: The Geometry of Molecules Build these five molecules. Compounds made of only 2 atoms are typically bent in shape. Compounds made of only 3 atoms are typically linear in shape. Part 1: Linear and bent molecules

5 5 Investigation 7B: The Geometry of Molecules a.Name two other elements which would likely form a bent molecule when bound with two hydrogen atoms. b.Create two other linear molecules. What elements do they contain? Part 1: Linear and bent molecules

6 6 Investigation 7B: The Geometry of Molecules Real molecules are not flat but have 3-dimensional forms.

7 7 Investigation 7B: The Geometry of Molecules Build the following molecules. Do these two molecules have the same shape? Part 2: Trigonal planar and trigonal molecules

8 8 Investigation 7B: The Geometry of Molecules a.Which of these molecules has a trigonal pyramidal shape? Can you explain why? b.Which of these molecules has a trigonal planar shape? Can you explain why? c.Name another element which would combine with three hydrogen atoms to make a trigonal molecule. Part 2: Trigonal planar and trigonal molecules

9 9 Investigation 7B: The Geometry of Molecules Part 2: Trigonal planar and trigonal molecules

10 10 Investigation 7B: The Geometry of Molecules Carbon 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 4 valence electrons Lewis dot diagram for carbon Carbon can donate 4 electrons…

11 11 Investigation 7B: The Geometry of Molecules 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 4 valence electrons Lewis dot diagram for carbon Carbon can donate 4 electrons… … or gain 4 electrons. Carbon

12 12 Investigation 7B: The Geometry of Molecules Build the following molecules. Part 3: Molecules with hydrogen and carbon

13 13 Investigation 7B: The Geometry of Molecules a.Which of these molecules (if any) is planar? b.Which of these molecules (if any) is linear? c.Which of these molecules (if any) is tetrahedral? A tetrahedron is a pyramid with four triangular sides. d.Which of these molecules (if any) is a ring? Part 3: Molecules with hydrogen and carbon

14 14 Investigation 7B: The Geometry of Molecules Many important molecules contain nitrogen and oxygen atoms. Part 4: Molecules with nitrogen and oxygen

15 15 Investigation 7B: The Geometry of Molecules Many important molecules contain nitrogen and oxygen atoms. a.Name two instances in these molecules where you find a tetragonal form. What element is central to this form? b.Name two instances in these molecules where you find a trigonal form. What element is central to this form? Part 4: Molecules with nitrogen and oxygen

16 16 Investigation 7B: The Geometry of Molecules Many important molecules contain nitrogen and oxygen atoms. c. Describe what is similar between methanol (wood alcohol) and ethanol (grain alcohol). Part 4: Molecules with nitrogen and oxygen

17 17 Investigation 7B: The Geometry of Molecules Many important molecules contain nitrogen and oxygen atoms. d. Amines are nitrogen-bearing compounds, often with very strong odors. Which of these compounds are amines? Part 4: Molecules with nitrogen and oxygen

18 18 Investigation 7B: The Geometry of Molecules Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) The function of a molecule depends on its 3-dimensional shape. Acetaminophen (active ingredient in Tylenol)


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