1SCIENCE EXPLORATION Instructors: Erin Flori & Catherine Gilley Class Location: Pueblo Mall SiteClass Meeting Times: Tuesdays 10-1Contact Information:Erin FloriCatherine Gilley
2CLASS ANNOUCEMENTS FIELD TRIP!!! Field trip to Rapture Center Pellet DissectionsTurn in signed permission slips in by January 28th, 2014Introduction of new class aids- Joe Stokes, Adam Avina, &Lab #1 Bubble Gum Lab Scientific Method- due January 28th, 2014 for grade please make revisions as neededUpdate information current phone number &
4toxicologyToxicology is a branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine (more specifically pharmacology) concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms. It is the study of symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of poisoning, especially the poisoning of people.It also studies the harmful effects of chemical, biological and physical agents in biological systems that establishes the extent of damage in living organisms.Mathieu Orfila is considered the modern father of toxicologyFactors that influence chemical toxicity:DosageBoth large single exposures (acute) and continuous small exposures (chronic) are studied.Route of exposureIngestion, inhalation or skin absorptionOther factorsSpeciesAgeSexHealthEnvironmentIndividual characteristics
5BallisticsBallistics is the science of mechanics that deals with the launching, flight, behavior, and effects of projectiles, especially bullets, gravity bombs, rockets, or the like; the science or art of designing and accelerating projectiles so as to achieve a desired performance.A ballistic body is a body with momentum which is free to move, subject to forces, such as the pressure of gases in a gun or a propulsive nozzle, by rifling in a barrel, by gravity, or by air drag.Ballistics can be studied using high-speed photography or high-speed cameras. A photo of a Smith and Wesson firing, taken with an ultra high speed air-gap flash. Using this sub-microsecond flash, the bullet can be imaged without motion blur.Ballistic fingerprinting techniques are based on the principle that all firearms have inevitable variations due to marks left by the machining process, leaving shallow impressions in the metal which are rarely completely polished out. Also, normal wear and tear from use can cause each firearm to acquire distinct characteristics over time.Gross DifferencesStriations- When a bullet is fired through a rifled barrel, the raised and lowered spirals of the rifling etch fine grooves called "striations" into the bullet. These can be matched with the barrel through which the bullet was fired. Examiners distinguish between striations common to all guns of a particular type ("class characteristics") and those unique to a particular gun ("individual characteristics")Breech Markings-Marks on the cartridge case can be matched to marks in the chamber and breech
6FORENSIC PATHOLOGY- AUTOPSY A forensic autopsy is used to determine the cause and manner of death. Forensic science involves the application of the sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. In United States law, deaths are classified under one of five manners:NaturalAccidentHomicideSuicideUndetermined
7External examinationAfter the body is received, it is first photographed. The examiner then notes the kind of clothes and their position on the body before they are removed. Next, any evidence such as residue, flakes of paint or other material is collected from the external surfaces of the body. Ultraviolet light may also be used to search body surfaces for any evidence not easily visible to the naked eye. Samples of hair, nails and the like are taken, and the body may also be radiographically imaged.Once the external evidence is collected, the body is removed from the bag, undressed, and any wounds present are examined. The body is then cleaned, weighed, and measured in preparation for the internal examination. A general description of the body as regards ethnicity, sex, age, hair colorand length, eye color and other distinguishing features (birthmarks, old scar tissue, moles, tattoos, etc.) is then made. Internal examination The internal examination consists of inspecting the internal organs of the body for evidence of trauma or other indications of the cause of death. For the internal examination there are a number of different approaches available:a large and deep Y-shaped incision can be made starting at the top of each shoulder and running down the front of the chest, meeting at the lower point of the sternum. This is the approach most often used.a T-shaped incision made from the tips of both shoulder, in a horizontal line across the region of the collar bones to meet at the sternum (breastbone) in the middle.a single vertical cut is made from the middle of the neck (in the region of the 'adam's apple' on a male body)In all of the above cases the cut then extends all the way down to the pubic bone (making a deviation to the left side of the navel).
8decomposition In entomological studies, five stages of decomposition are commonly described: (1) Fresh, (2) Bloat, (3) Active Decay, (4) Advanced or Post-Decay, and (5) Dry Remains.The fresh stage of decomposition is generally described as the period between the moment of death and when the first signs of bloat are apparent. There are no outward signs of physical change, though internal bacteria have begun to digest organ tissues..The first visible sign of the Bloat Stage is a slight inflation of the abdomen and some blood bubbles at the nose. Activity of anaerobic bacteria in the abdomen create gases, which accumulate and results in abdominal bloating. A colour change is observed in the carcass flesh, along with the appearance of marbling. During the bloat stage the odor of putrefaction becomes noticeable.The beginning of active decay stage is marked by the deflation of the carcass as feeding Dipteran larvae pierce the skin and internal gases are released. During this stage the carcass has a characteristic wet appearance due to the liquefaction of tissues. Flesh from the head and around the anus and umbilical cord is removed by larval feeding activity.Most of the flesh is removed from the carcass during the advanced decay stage, though some flesh may remain in the abdominal cavity. Strong odors of decomposition begin to fade.The final stage of decomposition is dry remains.
9ENTOMOLOGYForensic entomology is the application and study of insect and other arthropod biology to criminal matters. It also involves the application of the study of arthropods, including insects, arachnids, centipedes, millipedes, and crustaceans to criminal or legal cases. It is primarily associated with death investigations; however, it may also be used to detect drugs and poisons, determine the location of an incident, and find the presence and time of the infliction of wounds. Forensic entomology can be divided into three subfields: urban, stored-product and medico-legal/medico-criminal entomology.Medicolegal forensic entomology covers evidence gathered through arthropod studies at the scenes of murder, suicide, rape, physical abuse and contraband trafficking. In murder investigations it deals with which insects eggs appear, their location on the body and in what order they appear. This can be helpful in determining a post mortem interval (PMI) and location of a death in question.
12biometricsBiometrics are the measurable biological (anatomical and physiological) or behavioral characteristics used for identification of an individual. Fingerprints are a common biometric modality, but others include things like DNA, irises, voice patterns, palmprints, and facial patterns.Over the years, biometrics has been incredibly useful to the FBI and its partners in the law enforcement and intelligence communities—not only to authenticate an individual’s identity (you are who are say you are), but more importantly, to figure out who someone is (by a fingerprint left on a murder weapon or a bomb, for example), typically by scanning a database of records for a match.The FBI has long been a leader in biometrics. We’ve used various forms of biometric identification since our earliest days, including assuming responsibility for managing the national fingerprint collection in More recently, the Bureau’s Science and Technology Branch created the Biometric Center of Excellence (BCOE) to strengthen our ability to combat crime and terrorism with state-of-the-art biometrics technology.
13Mass murder in the united states- statistics Homicides are not monolithicHomicide rate is determined by the following formula: Homicide rate= H/(P/100,000) H=the number of homicides in a particular area P=the pop. in the particular areaThe FBI reported that in 2004, 16,137 individuals in the United States were murderedIn 1958, when Wolfgang published some of the first details about relationships in homicide cases, he noted that murder was most likely to occur between individuals who had some type of relationship.Homicide is predominately a male activity. More than three out of four victims, 78% of U.S. homicide offenders in 2004 were male.Homicide offending tends to be an activity that is committed most often by the relatively young. The peak age for homicide offending in 2004 was 20 to 24 years.A look at who kills who in terms of race shows that white offenders tend to kill white victims, and African American offenders tend to kill African American victims.
14Mass murder in the united states- statistics Firearms were used as the murder weapon in 66% of all homicides in 2004, with handguns the most popular gun choice for homicide offenders.Knives, personal weapons, and blunt objects were also common. When an offender uses his or her hands or feet to beat someone to death, it is categorized as a homicide by personal weapon. Hammers, bats, and pieces of wood are common blunt objects.Most homicides and the highest rate of homicide occurred in the most densely population areas Metropolitan Statistical areasHomicide more common in the South (most populous)Homicide tends to follow seasonal patterns with a greater percentage occurring in warm months. July summerThe Homicide rate in the United States remains consistently higher than the homicide rate in many other countries with a rate of 5.56 with the exception of Russia and South Africa
15CSI UNITWebsite: CSI: The Experience- Web AdventuresPlease access website by typing the link above in the URL and then please wait for further instructions.Please access CASE 1: Rookie Training-BeginnerAfter please create username and passwordUsername- first name initial last name1 ex: eflori1 or cgilley1Password- password1 (all in lower case)Then click register and begin Case 1 by following worksheet, please fill in and complete worksheet as you proceed through Case 1. Follow the Case 1 worksheet to complete Case 1. This will take about an hour so be sure to save if you leave the site. Case 1 worksheet will be turned in as part of the grade. After completing Case 1: Rookie Training-Beginner and worksheet select Case 2: Canine Caper-Intermediate and then one of the three advanced cases (case 3, 4, or 5) and as you complete the case write the following informationTitle- write the title of the caseProblem- write the question of the caseObservation- write 10 facts you learned during the case that were important to the solving of the case.Results- Write a detailed journal of what took place in the case and include the results of the case. Be sure to write your reaction to the case (feelings and thoughts)