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Sriram Ganesan & Mukul Atri Final Year B.Tech-M.Tech Dual Degree Students mentored by Dr. Abhijit Kushari Department of Aerospace Engineering Indian Institute.

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Presentation on theme: "Sriram Ganesan & Mukul Atri Final Year B.Tech-M.Tech Dual Degree Students mentored by Dr. Abhijit Kushari Department of Aerospace Engineering Indian Institute."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sriram Ganesan & Mukul Atri Final Year B.Tech-M.Tech Dual Degree Students mentored by Dr. Abhijit Kushari Department of Aerospace Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation

2 2 Team VAAYUNovember 15, 2011 Presentation Outline Baseline aircraft -Hybrid Wing Body Concept Baseline Engine-GE90 After Dilation Geared Turbofan Stator Noise Reduction Lean Direct Injection Combustors Spiroid winglets Golf-ball wings Weights estimate

3 3 Team VAAYUNovember 15, 2011 Hybrid Wing Body Concept Supercritical outer wing profile Shorter landing gear via better tail clearance Propulsive efficiency via Boundary Layer Ingestion (BLI) 30% reduction in structural weight Drooped leading edge device Faired undercarriage for reduction in noise Source : N+3 Aircraft Concept Designs and Trade Studies, Final Report

4 4 Team VAAYUNovember 15, 2011 Variable Area Nozzle Reduced jet noise during takeoff, landing Low fan speed operation Cruise: Pitch trim- minimizes profile drag Approach : increased drag using thrust vectoring combined with elevons

5 5 Team VAAYUNovember 15, 2011 GE 90 Engine Data sd CruiseTake-off Height (Km) Mach No RAMPR FPR LPCPR HPCPR OPR BPR CruiseTakeoff TaTa PaPa TIT (K) m a (kg/s) Thrust (kN) m f (kg/s) SFC (mg/N-s) IntakeFanCompressorTurbineNozzleCombustion Polytrophic Efficiency

6 6 Team VAAYUNovember 15, 2011 Trade -Off Plots

7 7 Team VAAYUNovember 15, 2011 Mixed Exhaust State of Art Augmenters- Low bypass Turbofan Engines - Takeoff, climb and combat -Atomized fuel ignites the mixture Annular Mixers -Shearing effect at stream interface -Low mixing efficiency Forced Mixers -Intertwined chutes force mixing -High pressure losses Source : 2011/04/ jet-engines-101.html Courtesy of Pratt & Whitney

8 8 Team VAAYUNovember 15, 2011 After Dilation 1) Diffuser 2) Mixing Zone 3) Nozzle6) Iris Nozzle 5) Bleed Valve 4) Bypass Duct High pressure differential between core and bypass Bleed Valve- controls bypass bleed factor κ Iris nozzle-allows various modes of operation

9 9 Team VAAYUNovember 15, 2011 Modes of Operation κ=0κ=0.4κ=0.8

10 10 Team VAAYUNovember 15, 2011 Boundary conditions Inlet conditions: Bypass:Core : P 08 =62689 PaP 05 =38143 Pa T 08 = KT 05 = K P 8 =52848 PaP 5 =37467 Pa Exit: P a =23900Pa T a =218 K

11 11 Team VAAYUNovember 15, 2011 Temperature Profile 2-d simulations conducted using ANSYS fluent Mixing converts thermal energy to kinetic energy Quick dissipation due to efficient turbulent mixing

12 12 Team VAAYUNovember 15, 2011 Velocity Profile Mixing at the interface Bleed valve optimization Uniformity of profile across exit

13 13 Team VAAYUNovember 15, 2011 Pressure Profile Propagation of Pressure fronts Core expands to ambient pressure Bypass flow exits in under-expanded state

14 14 Team VAAYUNovember 15, 2011 Results EngineGE90 in cruiseGE90 with κ=0.6GE90 with κ=0.7GE90 with κ=.9 Thrust(N) SFC(mg/N/s) Exit Velocity of Core/Mixer (m/s) Exit Velocity of Bypass (m/s) Exit Pressure of Core/Mixer (Pa) Exit Pressure of Bypass Exit area of Core/Mixer(m^2) Exit area of Bypass(m^2) Net Gain in Thrust-1.76%2.24%3.2%

15 15 Team VAAYUNovember 15, 2011 Summary Significant reduction in jet noise. -proportional to 8 th power of velocity gradient -64% reduction in velocity gradient 3.2% decrease in SFC for κ=0.9 Noise due to internal mixing Dynamic Instabilities Materials & Actuators

16 16 Team VAAYUNovember 15, 2011 Geared Turbofan High BPR desired due to increase in SFC Increase in fan diameter Lower RPM operation required for preventing shock losses Efficiency of LPC decreases at lower RPM Planetary reduction gear box used

17 17 Team VAAYUNovember 15, 2011 Benefits Low FPR and bypass exit velocity Low fan RPM, low fan noise and jet noise High propulsive efficiency Length reduction of low-pressure spool components like LPC, LPT and thus a reduction in engine weight Relatively higher LPC and LPT efficiency than the normal turbofan engines

18 18 Team VAAYUNovember 15, 2011 Stator Noise Reduction Source: E. Envia, M. Nallasamy, ‘Design Selection and Analysis of a Swept and Leaned Stator Concept’, Journal of Sound and Vibration (1999) 228(4), , Article No. jsvi

19 19 Team VAAYUNovember 15, 2011 Stator Configurations Leaned stator: tangential rotation about the baseline radial position Swept Stator: axial rotation about the baseline radial position Aft-position radial stator (APRF): stator position displaced by a distance equal to the distance between the leading edge of the rotor and the swept stator Results of high-sweep angles(30 0 ) are marginally better than those of APRF APRF requires only small changes to the engine

20 20 Team VAAYUNovember 15, 2011 Results Noise reduction due to modification in blade LocationSwept only(30 0 ) (dB) Sweep(30 0 ) + lean(-30 0 ) (dB) Aft-position radial stator (dB) Take-off Approach787 Cutback Total *-Values are averaged over upstream and downstream for 2 X BPF tone

21 21 Team VAAYUNovember 15, 2011 Lean Direct Injection Combustors Injects fuel into multiple zones Reduces local temperature Allows lean combustion LDI combustors reduce LTO NOx emissions by 15-20%

22 22 Team VAAYUNovember 15, 2011 Golf-ball wings Golf-ball wings + smart structures => flap-less wings Actuation can produce “dimples” Larger C l max Differentiated operation of actuators can eliminate the need for ailerons as well Application is similar to that of vortex generators on wings Source:

23 23 Team VAAYUNovember 15, 2011 Spiroid Winglets Reduction of Induced drag 10% reduction in fuel burn for short journeys Testing on-going for long flights Profile Drag Skin friction drag Induced drag Total Drag Source: Aviation Partners,

24 24 Team VAAYUNovember 15, 2011 Weights Estimate ComponentWeight (in kgs) Fan Weight (Single Gear Drive Fan)1296 Nacelle Weight760 Compressor (3 LPC+12 HPC)1564 Combustor325 Turbine(4 LPT+3 HPC)2506 Accessories & Others500 Total Weight6951

25 25 Team VAAYUNovember 15, 2011

26 26 Team VAAYUNovember 15, 2011 Many thanks to Dr. Abhijit Kushari, our project mentor who contributed his time and knowledge for this design Vivek and Anandh for their invaluable help in conducting the computational simulations Dr. Elizabeth Ward for prompt responses to all the queries and concerns through out the project Dean Resource Planning and Generation Office (DRPG) and Department of Aerospace Engineering, IIT Kanpur for travel support to attend the forum

27 27 Team VAAYUNovember 15, 2011 References 1.N+3 Aircraft Concept Designs and Trade Studies, Final Report 2.http://www.pw.utc.com/products/commercial/purepower-pw1000g.asphttp://www.pw.utc.com/products/commercial/purepower-pw1000g.asp 3. Vivek Sanghi and B. K. Lakshmanan 2002 “Optimum Mixing of Core and Bypass Streams in High-Bypass Civil Turbofan”, Journal of Propulsion and Power Vol 18, No.4, July-August Pearson, H., “Mixing of Exhaust and Bypass Flow in a Bypass Engine,” Journal of Royal Aeronautical Society, Vol. 66, Aug. 1962, pp. 528– Frost, T. H., “Practical BypassMixing Systems for Fan Jet Aero Engine,”The Aeronautical Quarterly, May 1966, pp. 141– http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propelling_nozzle#Iris_nozzleshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propelling_nozzle#Iris_nozzles 8.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geared_turbofanhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geared_turbofan (continued..)

28 28 Team VAAYUNovember 15, C. Riegler, C. Bichlmaier ‘The Geared Turbofan Technology-Opportunities, Challenges and Readiness Status’, _turbofan_technology.pdfwww.mtu.de/en/technologies/engineering_news/others/Riegler_Geared _turbofan_technology.pdf 10.Philip G. Hill, Carl R. Peterson, Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Propulsion 11.Ilan Kroo,‘Drag due to Lift: Concepts for Prediction and Reduction’,, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech :587– http://www.flightglobal.com/blogs/flightblogger/2008/06/spiroid-wingtip- technology-the.htmlhttp://www.flightglobal.com/blogs/flightblogger/2008/06/spiroid-wingtip- technology-the.html 13.http://www.jet-engine.net/civtfspec.htmlhttp://www.jet-engine.net/civtfspec.html 14.E. Envia, M. Nallasamy, ‘Design Selection and Analysis of a Swept and Leaned Stator Concept’, Journal of Sound and Vibration (1999) 228(4), , Article No. jsvi Richard P. Woodward, David M. Elliott, Christopher E. Hughes and Jeffrey J. Berton ‘Benefits of Swept-and-Leaned Stators for Fan Noise Reduction’, 16.www.stanford.edu/~cantwell/AA283.../GE90_Engine_Data.pdf


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