Presentation on theme: "Propulsion Systems. Propulsion System A machine that produces thrust to push an object forward The amount of thrust depends on the mass flow through the."— Presentation transcript:
Propulsion System A machine that produces thrust to push an object forward The amount of thrust depends on the mass flow through the engine and the exit velocity of the gas
Airplane Propulsion Systems Propeller Turbine (jet) engine Ramjet or Scramjet Rocket Planes
Why Are There Different Types of Engines? Newton’s 1 st Law Objects in motion tend to stay in motion and objects at rest tend to stay at rest unless something pushes or pulls on the object. Therefore: 1.Thrust from the propulsion system must balance the drag when the airplane is cruising. 2.Thrust from the propulsion system must exceed the drag for the airplane to accelerate.
Airliners and Cargo Planes Spend most of the time in a cruise state High engine efficiency and low fuel usage more important than excess thrust Turboprop and turbofan propulsion used on airliners and cargo planes
Propulsion Systems Jet propulsion is similar to the release of an inflated balloon.
Propulsion Systems Turbojet –First really useful jet engine built
Propulsion Systems Turbofan –Adds a large set of fan blades at the front of the inlet Turboprop –The fan from turbofan is replaced with a propeller
Fighter Planes and Hypersonic Aircraft Require high excess thrust to accelerate quickly and overcome high drag associated with high speeds High thrust is more important than engine efficiency
Rocket Powered Airplanes Uses a rocket engine for propulsion Has higher speeds Propels only for a short period of time Unusual launch configurations –From another plane –Vertically – nose in the air and tail to the ground
Rocket Propulsion Engine pushes itself forward or upward by producing thrust A rocket engine uses only propellant carried within it A rocket can operate in outer space, where there is almost no air
How Do Rocket Engines Work? Newton’s 3 rd Law: For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. 1.Rocket engines generate thrust by putting a gas under pressure. 2.The gas escaping the rocket is called exhaust. 3.As the rocket pushes the exhaust backward, the exhaust pushes the rocket forward.
Rocket Propellant Solid-Fuel Rockets –Burn a solid material called the grain –Engineers design grains with a hollow core –Propellant burns from the core outward –Unburned propellant shields the engine casing from the heat of combustion
Rocket Propellant Liquid-Fuel Rocket –Carries fuel and oxidizer in separate tanks –Fuel circulates through cooling jacket before entering combustion chamber –Circulation preheats the fuel for combustion and helps cool the rocket
Rocket Propellant Ion (Electric) –Coils are heated to change a fuel, such as xenon, into a vapor –Hot platinum or tungsten ionization grid changes the flowing vapor into a stream of electrically charged particles called ions
Rocket Propellant Nuclear –Uses heat from a nuclear reactor to change a liquid fuel into a gas –Some of the fuel, heated by the nozzle of the rocket, flows through the turbine –Turbine drives the fuel pump
What’s Next? Our own experiments on jet propulsion!
Image Resources Microsoft, Inc. (2008). Clip art. Retrieved September 10, 2008, from http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/clipart/default.aspx National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (2008). Beginner’s guide to propulsion. Retrieved June 23, 2009, from http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/bgp.html National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (2008). NASA TV Video Gallery. Retrieved June 23, 2009, from http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/videogallery/index.html National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (2008). NASA – A closer look at the X-43 mission. Retrieved June 23, 2009, from http://www.nasa.gov/missions/research/x43-image-feature.html National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). (2007). NASA – Rocket. Retrieved June 23, 2009, from http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/rocket_worldbook.html