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SPECIAL PROCESSING AND ASSEMBLY TECHNOLOGIES  Rapid Prototyping and Additive Manufacturing  Processing of Integrated Circuits  Electronics Assembly.

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Presentation on theme: "SPECIAL PROCESSING AND ASSEMBLY TECHNOLOGIES  Rapid Prototyping and Additive Manufacturing  Processing of Integrated Circuits  Electronics Assembly."— Presentation transcript:

1 SPECIAL PROCESSING AND ASSEMBLY TECHNOLOGIES  Rapid Prototyping and Additive Manufacturing  Processing of Integrated Circuits  Electronics Assembly and Packaging  Microfabrication Technologies  Nanofabrication Technologies ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

2 RAPID PROTOTYPING AND ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING 1.Fundamentals of Rapid Prototyping and Additive Manufacturing 2.Additive Manufacturing Processes 3.Cycle Time and Cost Analysis 4.Additive Manufacturing Applications ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

3 Rapid Prototyping (RP) and Additive Manufacturing (AM)  Family of fabrication processes to make engineering prototypes or production parts in minimum lead time based on a CAD model of the item  Traditional method is machining and can require significant lead-times – weeks, depending on part complexity and difficulty in ordering materials  RP/AM allows a part to be made in hours or days, given that a computer model of the part has been generated on a CAD system  One might say that RP is a subset of AM when the purpose is to make a prototype ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

4 Why is Rapid Prototyping Important?  Product designers want to have a physical model of a new part or product design rather than just a computer model or line drawing  Creating a prototype is an integral step in design  A virtual prototype (a CAD model of the part) may not be sufficient for the designer to visualize the part adequately  Using RP to make the prototype, the designer can see and feel the part and assess its merits and shortcomings ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

5 Available Rapid Prototyping Technologies 1.Material removal RP - machining, using a dedicated CNC machine that is available to the design department on short notice  Starting material is often wax  The CNC machines are often small - called desktop machining 2.Material addition RP - adds layers of material one at a time to build the solid part from bottom to top ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

6 Advantages of Material Addition RP Technologies  Speed of part delivery  Avoidance of the CNC part programming task, because the CAD model is the part program in material addition RP  Complexity of part geometry is not an issue in material addition RP ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

7 Steps to Prepare Control Instructions 1.Geometric modeling - design the component on a CAD system to define its enclosed volume 2.Tessellation of the geometric model - CAD model is converted into a computerized format that approximates its surfaces by facets (triangles or polygons) 3.Slicing of the model into layers - computerized model is sliced into closely-spaced parallel horizontal layers ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

8  (a) Conversion of a solid model of an object into layers (b) only one layer is shown ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e Solid Model to Layers

9 Starting Materials in Material Addition RP 1.Liquid monomers that are cured layer by layer into solid polymers 2.Powders that are aggregated and bonded layer by layer 3.Molten materials that are solidified layer by layer 4.Solid sheets that are laminated to create the solid part ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

10 Layer-Forming Processes  Lasers  Printing heads that operate using ink-jet technology  Extruder heads  Other processes:  Electron beams  Cutting knives  UV light systems ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

11 Three Basic Channel Modes (a) Moving point or moving spot, (b) moving line across the entire layer in one translational motion, and (c) layer mode - entire layer is created at the same time ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

12 Additive Manufacturing Processes 1.Liquid-based: Stereolithography and mask projection stereolithography 2.Powder-based: Selective laser sintering and three- dimensional printing 3.Molten material: Fused deposition modeling and droplet deposition manufacturing 4.Solid-based: Laminated object manufacturing ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

13 Stereolithography (SL)  RP process for fabricating a solid plastic part out of a photosensitive liquid polymer using a directed laser beam to solidify the polymer  Part fabrication is accomplished as a series of layers - each layer is added onto the previous layer to gradually build the 3-D geometry  The first addition RP technology - introduced 1988 by 3D Systems Inc. based on work of Charles Hull ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

14  (1) At start of the process, in which the initial layer is added to the platform; and (2) after several layers have been added so that the part geometry gradually takes form ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e Stereolithography

15 Facts about Stereolithography  Typical layer thickness is mm to mm (0.002 in to in) thick  Thinner layers provide better resolution and more intricate shapes, but processing time is longer  Starting materials are liquid monomers  Polymerization occurs on exposure to UV light produced by laser scanning beam  Scanning speeds ~ 500 to 2500 mm/s ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

16 Mask Projection Stereolithography (MPSL)  Conventional stereolithography uses a single moving laser beam to cure the polymer  MPSL exposes the entire layer using a UV light source through a dynamic mask instead of a scanning laser beam  Dynamic mask is digitally altered for each layer using a digital micromirror device consisting of several hundred thousand microscopic mirrors  Exposure and curing process in MPSL is therefore shorter than in conventional SL ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

17 Mask Projection Stereolithography (MPSL) ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

18 Selective Laser Sintering (SLS)  Moving laser beam sinters heat ‑ fusible powders in areas corresponding to the CAD geometry model one layer at a time to build the solid part  After each layer is completed, a new layer of loose powders is spread across the surface  Layer by layer, the powders are gradually bonded by the laser beam into a 3-D solid geometry  In areas not sintered, the powders are loose and can be poured out of completed part ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

19 Three Dimensional Printing (3DP)  Part is built using an ink-jet printer to eject adhesive bonding material onto successive layers of powders  Binder is deposited in areas corresponding to the cross sections of part, as determined by slicing the CAD geometric model into layers  The binder holds the powders together to form the solid part, while the unbonded powders remain loose to be removed later  To strengthen the part, a sintering step can be applied to bond the individual powders ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

20  (1) Powder layer is deposited, (2) ink-jet printing of areas that will become the part, and (3) piston is lowered for next layer ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e Three Dimensional Printing

21 Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM)  RP process in which a long filament of wax or thermoplastic polymer is extruded onto existing part surface from a workhead to complete each new layer  Workhead is controlled in x-y plane during each layer and then moves up by a distance equal to one layer in the z-direction  Extrudate is solidified and cold welded to the cooler part surface in about 0.1 s  Part is fabricated layer-by-layer from the base up ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

22 Collection of Parts Made by Fused Deposition Modeling ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e (Courtesy of George E. Kane Manufacturing Technology Laboratory, Lehigh University)

23 ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e FDM Machine (Courtesy of George E. Kane Manufacturing Technology Laboratory, Lehigh University)

24 Droplet Deposition Manufacturing (DDM)  Starting material is melted and small droplets are shot by a nozzle onto previously formed layer  Droplets cold weld to surface to form a new layer  Deposition for each layer controlled by a moving x-y nozzle whose path is based on a cross section of a CAD geometric model that is sliced into layers  Work materials include wax and thermoplastics ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

25 Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM)  Solid physical model made by stacking layers of sheet stock, each an outline of the cross-sectional shape of a CAD model that is sliced into layers  Starting sheet stock includes paper, plastic, cellulose, metals, or fiber-reinforced materials  Sheet usually supplied with adhesive backing as rolls that are spooled between two reels  After cutting, excess material in the layer remains in place to support the part during building ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

26 Laminated Object Manufacturing

27 RP Cycle Time Analysis Time T i to complete a single layer in processes that use a moving-spot channel mode where A i = area of layer I V = speed of moving spot D = diameter of moving spot (assumed circular) T r = repositioning time between layers ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

28 RP Cycle Time Analysis Time T i to complete a single layer in processes that use a moving-line channel mode where v s = velocity of moving line L s = length of sweep across layer Time T i to complete a single layer in processes that use a layer channel mode T i = T ex + T r Where T ex = exposure time for one layer ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

29 RP Cycle Time Analysis Total cycle time T c to build the part is the sum of the individual layer times T i plus the time to set up the machine where T su = machine setup time n l = number of layers to approximate the part n l = part height divided by layer thickness ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

30 RP Cost Analysis Cost per piece C pc by any of the RP processes includes material, labor, and machine operating cost C pc = C m + (C L U L + C eq )T c + C L T pp where C m = material cost per piece C L = labor cost per hour U L = labor utilization factor (machine is automatic) C eq = equipment cost per hour T c = cycle time per piece T pp = post-processing time per part ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

31 Additive Manufacturing Applications  Applications of rapid prototyping can be classified into three categories: 1.Design 2.Engineering analysis and planning 3.Tooling 4.Parts production ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

32 Design Applications  Designers are able to confirm their design by building a real physical model in minimum time using RP  Design benefits of RP:  Reduced lead times to produce prototypes  Improved ability to visualize part geometry  Early detection of design errors  Increased capability to compute mass properties ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

33 Engineering Analysis and Planning  Existence of part allows certain engineering analysis and planning activities to be accomplished that would be more difficult without the physical entity  Comparison of different shapes and styles to determine aesthetic appeal  Stress analysis of physical model  Fabrication of pre-production parts for process planning and tool design ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

34 Tooling Applications  Called rapid tool making (RTM) when RP is used to fabricate production tooling  Two approaches for tool-making: 1.Indirect RTM method 2.Direct RTM method ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

35 Indirect RTM Method Pattern is created by RP and the pattern is used to fabricate the tool  Examples:  Patterns for sand casting and investment casting  Electrodes for EDM ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

36 Direct RTM Method RP is used to make the tool itself  Example:  3DP to create a die of metal powders followed by sintering and infiltration to complete the die ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

37 Parts Production  Small batches of plastic parts that could not be economically molded by injection molding because of the high mold cost  Parts with intricate internal geometries that could not be made using conventional technologies without assembly  Spare parts (make as needed rather than inventory)  One-of-a-kind parts such as bone replacements that must be made to correct size for each user ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

38 Problems with Rapid Prototyping  Part accuracy:  Staircase appearance for a sloping part surface due to layering  Shrinkage and distortion of RP parts  Limited variety of materials in RP  Mechanical performance of the fabricated parts is limited by the materials that must be used in the RP process ©2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 5/e

39 Example 1  (SI units) A tube with a rectangular cross section is to be fabricated by stereolithography. Outside dimensions of the rectangle are 40 mm by 70 mm, and the corresponding inside dimensions are 32 mm by 62 mm (wall thickness = 4 mm except at corners). The height of the tube (z-direction) = 50 mm. Layer thickness = 0.10 mm, and laser spot diameter = 0.25 mm. The beam velocity across the surface of the photopolymer = 750 mm/s. Compute an estimate for the cycle time to build the part, if 20 s are lost each layer for repositioning and recoating. Ignore setup time.  Solution: Layer area A i same for all layers.  A i = 40(70) – 32(62) = 2800 – 1984 = 816 mm 2  Time to complete one layer T i same for all layers.  T i = (816 mm 2 )/(0.25 mm)(750 mm/s) + 20 s = = s  Number of layers n l = (50 mm)/(0.10 mm/layer) = 500 layers  T c = 500(24.352) = 12,176 s = min = 3.38 hr

40 Example 2  (SI units) The cone-shaped part in Problem 32.6 is built using laminated-object manufacturing. Layer thickness = 0.20 mm. The laser beam can cut the sheet stock at a velocity of 500 mm/s. Compute an estimate for the time required to build the part, if 25 s are lost each layer to lower the height of the platform that holds the part and advance the sheet stock in preparation for the next layer. Ignore cutting of the cross-hatched areas outside of the part since the cone should readily drop out of the stack owing to its geometry. Setup time for the job = 30 min.  Solution: For LOM, we need the circumference of each layer, which is the outline to be cut by the laser beam. For a cone, the total surface area (not including the base) =  R(R 2 + h 2 ) 0.5  A =  (40)( ) 0.5 = mm 2  Number of layers n i = 40 mm/(0.20 mm/layer) = 200 layers  Average outside surface area per layer = ( mm 2 )/(200 layers) = mm 2 /layer  Since layer thickness t = 0.05 mm, circumference C = ( mm 2 )/(0.20 mm) = mm  Average time to cut a layer T i = (177.7 mm)/(500 mm/s) + 10 s = = s  T c = 200(25.355) = 5071 s = min = 1.41 hr


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