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DESIGN ANALYSIS for a SMALL SCALE ENGINE by Tim van Wageningen.

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Presentation on theme: "DESIGN ANALYSIS for a SMALL SCALE ENGINE by Tim van Wageningen."— Presentation transcript:

1 DESIGN ANALYSIS for a SMALL SCALE ENGINE by Tim van Wageningen

2 Contents - Motivation - Concepts - Performance Analysis - Conclusions - Questions ±40 min 2 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS – PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

3 NatureTechnology scale → smalllarge Atalantaproject 3 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS – PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

4 Micro Air Vehicle Flapping Wing Mechanism - Designed by Casper Bolsman gram - Performance estimate: W power output - Needed power density of system: 125 W/kg system: 125 W/kg - 6 minutes of flight time with 5% efficiency 5% efficiency MAV 4 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS – PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

5 MAV in Action 5 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS – PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

6 Hydrogen Peroxide - Master thesis of Arjan Meskers at the PME department, TU Delft department, TU Delft - Chemical energy: high energy density - Monopropellant - Clean products: oxygen and water vapor - Example catalysts: -Manganese oxide -Silver-Platinum 6 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS – PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

7 Catalytic Reaction in Action 7 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS – PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

8 Thesis Assignment Find an engine concept that: - is suitable for the MAV W/kg - 5% efficiency - uses hydrogen peroxide as fuel 8 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS – PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

9 Possibilities 9 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

10 3 different approaches Turbine Piston Cylinder MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

11 Concept I: Tesla Turbine Engine + Easy implementation + Theory of Tesla Turbine predicts good efficiency at predicts good efficiency at small scale small scale - Conversion from rotation to linear motion to linear motion MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

12 Concept I: Tesla Turbine Engine MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

13 Concept II: Otto Engine + Proven concept on regular scale scale - Projects in literature show bad performance because of bad performance because of fluid leakage problem fluid leakage problem - Implementation difficult + 13 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

14 Concept II: Otto engine + 14 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

15 Concept III: Hot Air Engine + Easy implementation + Promising scaling aspects because heat transfer is more because heat transfer is more effective effective - Poor performance on regular scale scale MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS – PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

16 Concept III: Hot Air Engine MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

17 Performance - What influences the performance of these concepts? these concepts? - Concept I - Concept II - Concept III - Are the concepts suited for the MAV? -Power density -Efficiency 17 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

18 Concept I: Tesla Turbine Engine 18 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

19 Concept I: Tesla Turbine Engine: model Assumptions: Laminar flow No entrance effects Incompressible fluid 19 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

20 Power Efficiency Pressure difference Length of belts (radius of discs) Height of gap (spacing between discs) 20 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

21 [2] V.G. Krishnan et al. A micro Tesla turbine for power generation from low pressure heads and evaporation driven flows. Transducers, 11:1851 – 1854, June Measurements with small scale Tesla turbines Pressure difference: ~20 kPa Measured Performance 45 mW 18% efficiency Estimated power density: 2 W/kg 21 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

22 - Power density is too low: pressure difference pressure difference must be increased must be increased considerably considerably - Simple model + measurements show that TTE is not suitable for the show that TTE is not suitable for the current size MAV current size MAV Concept I, Tesla Turbine Engine: conclusions 22 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

23 Concept II: Otto Engine 23 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

24 Concept II, Otto Engine: combining 3 models Catalytic Reaction HeatLoss Exhaust Flow MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

25 Catalytic Reaction: model 25 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS Drop on a catalytic surface Similar conditions as during experiments Energy Balance:

26 Catalytic Reaction: model [1] A.J.H. Meskers. High energy density micro-actuation based on gas generation by means of catalyst of liquid chemical energy. Masters thesis, TU Delft, MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

27 Catalytic Reaction: high fuel concentrations 27 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

28 Exhaust Flow: model Compressible flow through a round nozzle round nozzle Based on momentum equation 28 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

29 Heat transfer Heat is transferred via -conduction-convection-radiation 29 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

30 Concept II, Otto Engine: combining models + + = - Dealing with model uncertainties: 30 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

31 Otto Engine: observations -Reaction times are fast enough -Trade off for fuel used per cycle -Condensation in cylinder 31 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

32 Concept II, Otto Engine: Results - Model shows performance above the current requirements of the the current requirements of the MAV (125 5% efficiency) MAV (125 5% efficiency) 32 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

33 Concept II, Otto Engine: considerations - Model neglects: - fluid leakage through cylinder/piston gap - fluid friction at exhaust - fuel delivery system - Condensation in cylinder problem needs to be addressed needs to be addressed 33 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

34 Concept III: Hot Air Engine 34 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

35 Concept III, Hot Air Engine: models ++ Catalytic Reaction HeatLoss Heat Reservoir s 35 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

36 Concept III, Hot Air Engine: Catalytic Reaction Constant temperature Mass balance 36 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

37 Concept III, Hot Air Engine: Heat Reservoirs Schemati c Under reversible conditions Estimate for heat transfer rates - Using definition Fouriers law Fouriers law -Optimistic and pessimistic value pessimistic value 37 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

38 Model Results Resulting performance of model ++= 38 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

39 Considerations for Small Scale Hot Air Engine - Model neglects losses of - fluid flow between piston cylinder gap - heat leakage of Decomposition Unit to the working fluid the working fluid 39 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

40 Conclusions for Small Scale Hot Air Engine - Heat transfer is not yet fast enough on this scale, which results in low on this scale, which results in low performance performance 40 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS - Concept III is not suited for the MAV

41 Overall Conclusions - Of the considered possibilities, the small scale Otto engine is the best small scale Otto engine is the best option for the MAV: option for the MAV: Power density at 5% efficiency: Concept 1: << 2 W/kg Concept 2: 245 – 440 W/kg Concept 3: 0.5 – 8 W/kg 41 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS

42 42 MOTIVATIONS - CONCEPTS - PERFORMANCE I / II / III - CONCLUSIONS Overall Conclusions Actual implementation of concept II requires more detailed analysis: - Solving the fluid leakage problem - Fuel pump -Exhaust port -Condensation

43 Thank You!

44 44 DETAILED SLIDES Detailed slides

45 16 PERFORMANCE Scaling? Engine 1 S = 1 L = 10 A = 10 V = 10 Engine 2 S = 0.5 L = 5 A = 2.5 V = 1.25 Scaling factor LengthAreaVolume

46 6 PREMILAIRY RESEARCH Approach of others?

47 7 PREMILAIRY REASEARCH Possibilities

48 40 PERFORMANCE Power Efficiency Pressure difference Length of belts (radius of disks) Height of gap (spacing between disks)

49 7 CONCEPTS Energy flow in concepts Carnot cycle =

50 8 PERFORMANCE Carnot Cycle zero power output!

51 9 PERFORMANCE Curzon Ahlborn Cycle

52 10 PERFORMANCE Curzon Ahlborn Cycle

53 11 PERFORMANCE ND Curzon Ahlborn Cycle

54 17 PERFORMANCE Basic thermodynamic engine model - Two constant temperature reservoirs: reservoirs: - Energy flows modeled with Fouriers law of heat conduction: Fouriers law of heat conduction: -Carnot cycle between the working fluid temperatures: working fluid temperatures:

55 ND Curzon Ahlborn Cycle 18 PERFORMANCE

56 19 PERFORMANCE Scaling of performance

57 20 PERFORMANCE Intermediate Conclusions - Efficiency of engine is independent of scale, if the cycle time is adjusted correctly scale, if the cycle time is adjusted correctly - Optimal power output can be found by finding the optimal cycle time finding the optimal cycle time - Assuming an optimal engine configuration:

58 12 PERFORMANCE Energy Balance Model

59 13 PERFORMANCE

60 14 PERFORMANCE Energy Balance Model

61 13 PERFORMANCE Scaling of optimal cycle time concept 3 opti pessi

62 16 DETAILS Heat transfer - Heat is transferred via -conduction-convection-radiation - FEM model in COMSOL

63 Heat transfer: FEM model results 16 DETAILS

64 Heat transfer: facts for MAV engine - Low Biot number situations: not much use for insulation. for insulation. - Difficult to maintain a temperature difference within the system difference within the system - Loss term scaling exponent = 1.5

65 Intermediate Conclusions 15 PERFORMANCE - The performance of depends on a potential and the utilization potential and the utilization - Utilization is independent of scale - How does this apply to the concepts?

66 16 DETAILS Catalytic Reaction: fundamentals - Decomposition rate proportional to the effective contact area between fuel and effective contact area between fuel and catalyst catalyst - Large Damköhler number: rate temperature independent temperature independent - First order reaction:

67 32 DETAILS Exhaust Flow: model Flow through a nozzle nozzle Based on momentum equation Neglects friction

68 Exhaust Flow: characteristics 33 DETAILS

69 Model Results: scaling 24 PERFORMANCE Assumingunrestricted cycle time!

70 41 PERFORMANCE What about scaling? Catalytic Reaction: Fluid Flow: Power Density at reference scale (S=1): Power: Power Density: Power: Power Density: Power Density when size is 10 times smaller (S=0.1):


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